THE STORY OF PAKISTAN – IDEOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE – Prof. Dr. Manzoor-ul-Haque

…….. And then the grandpa started telling “The Story of Pakistan”.

It is said that when the phoenix feels that its life is going to end, it gathers dried stalks and starts singing. Flames start coming out of its wings and burn its surroundings, and burn it too. It makes all a heap of ashes. Then rain pours and creates a new phoenix – a new base of life.

A NEW BASE OF LIFE FOR NATIONS

This allegory, whether true or not, equally applies to the nations who have a little spark of life left in them. It happens as such, even if the ups and downs of life reduce these nations to ashes. This interred spark comes out and creates a man who gives a new lease of life to the nation.

STATE OF AFFAIRS AFTER 1857

There was an 1857 Independence War in the Indo-Pak sub-continent. The British termed it “an act of revolt”. The Muslims became the victim. They lay threw down, bleeding at the feet of the conqueror, the British. They lost their rule, even their existence as a nation. The defeat put them reeling into a state of hopelessness. Bahadur Shah Zafar (1775 – 1862), was the legal body, the last reminisce of the great Mughal dynasty that was exposed as false, unreliable, and irrelevant. Queen Victoria (1819 – 901) became the Empress of India in 1877. Stage by stage Muslims were deprived of their political, military, civil, judicial and economic power. They were even deprived of their traditional educational facilities and resources. They were already a fallen nation, headed by an Emperor whose presence was not effective even within the four walls of the Red Fort in Delhi. He, as a pensioner of the East India Company[1], was found pleading helplessly for a rise in his pension.

The British applied pharaoh’s political strategy, humiliate the brave and uphold the coward. The Hindu co-operated with the British. The intention was to take revenge for 1000 years governance of the Muslim rule. The brave who survived were blamed for the “act of revolt”. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan wrote a book “Loyal Muhammadans of India” (Published 1860) which became a living proof of the Muslims’ state of decadence and dejection. They were termed as “the sole ingredients of every crime”, Sir Syed writes in this book. It was on the basis of the uncommitted crimes that Sir Dr. W.W. Hunter in his book “The Indian Mussalmans” (published 1871) suggested that the status of Muslims of India in future would be no more than that of woodcutter and of water-carrier. “A hundred and seventy years ago”, writes Sir Syed, “it was impossible for a well-known Mussalman to become poor, at present it is almost impossible for him to remain rich.” “The truth is”, he continues, “The Mussalmans were the superior race, superior not only in stoutness of heart and strength of arm, but in power of political organization and in the science of practical government.” And now “no calamity started from heaven, which before reaching the earth did not seek the home of the Mussalmans. In all the English newspapers and books that I saw during those days I invariably marked one thing, namely, none is wicked and mischievous except Muslims, Muslims, Muslims. No prickly tree was planted in those days which it was not said that its seed was sown by the Muslims and no fiery typhoon arose about which it was not alleged that it was raised by the Muslims”.

SIR SYED AHMED KHAN, THE PHOENIX (1817 – 1898)

Just at this time came Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, he was but an ordinary employee of the British Government. His childhood and adolescence, in his own words, remained buried in playing Kabaddi[2], flying kites and enjoying dance and music. In these circumstances, he sprang up as a spark from the ashes of the nation. He ran through its dried veins and paved way to create a new World.

Impact of his Inner Feelings

When Sir Syed Ahmed Khan felt the sense of creating awareness in the nation, there was a darkness of frustration all around. Expressing his inner feelings he says:
“I did never think the nation will ever come out of this morass and chaos to survive, to prosper, and to get respect any more. I could not bear to look upon the condition of the people. . . . Believe me, this grief made me old and turned my hair gray. … But then, the thought came to me that it would be very cowardly and unmanly to leave one’s country in ruins and enjoy a comfortable life in privacy. No! I ought to participate in that misery. It was national duty to try to relieve the miseries as much as I could. And so I … chose to work for my country.”

The Height of his Character

What was the height of character of this saviour of the nation? The following example makes it clear:

During the time of violent disturbances, he saved the lives of many English women and children just because they were human beings. The British Government, as reward, offered him the forfeited estates of the Chandpur’s chieftains along with a reasonable property. He refused to accept. His plea was that quenching thirst with the blood of a Muslim brother would not be agreeable to him in any way. He mentioned this event in one of his speeches to the Muslim Education Conference. He said, “Unto my own heart, I said ‘no one would be more stupid than me in the world, if I accept this reward and become an owner of the estate at a time when my own nation is in tatters’, so I flatly refused to accept it.” And then he became busy for the survival of his people.

Two-nation Theory

‘Let the Muslims live as a separate permanent nation’ was his slogan. Neither the British, nor the Hindu were ready to accept the idea of being a separate permanent nation. The British, at the most, were willing to accept the Muslims as a rebellious religious sect and the Hindu as if the Muslims were untouchable. At this juncture of time, it was Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, who proclaimed that the Muslims and the Hindu are the two separate nations. In 1867, in reply to a question of the Commissioner of Banaras, Mr. Shakespeare, he said:

“And now I am sure these two nations will never co-operate with each other in any endeavour. Nothing has happened till yet. As the time passes this opposition and enmity will mount from the so called educated Hindus, those who live by that time will see.”

The Muslim and the Hindu are two separate nations, so their states ought to be separate. This announcement was the first foundation stone, which Sir Syed Ahmed Khan laid almost 150 years ago. Addressing the students of Dar-ul-Uloom, he said:

“Remember, the truest ideology is the ideology of Kalemah: ‘There-is-no-god-but-God and Mohammad (570 – 632) pbuh is – the-Messenger-of-God.’ Believing in this ideology makes our nation really ours. If you did all at your command without committing yourselves to this ideology, you would no more remain members of our nation, how exalted though you may become out. I am confident you would be the character models of knowledge and Islam both. And then alone would our nation attain the real, the original, the genuine esteem.” He was the FIRST Architect of Pakistan.

His Pursuit of Excellence

The Indo-Pak history stands witness to the fact that up to the year 1930, The Muslims of British-India were like grains of sand, scattered and broken. They were like a camel without a nose-string. They were a convoy without a destination, without a guide, and without a leader. Their endeavours were short-lived like a gust of wind or a splash of seawater where Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was putting forth the best of his efforts. He was taking up the challenge with great courage, determination, and enthusiasm, the qualities that never failed him till the end of his life. He worked and worked hard, and there is hardly an aspect of national life that he did not touch and leave his impact on. Through his speeches, writings, meetings, and dialogues, he projected the idea of Muslims being a separate nation from others. And the foundation was Kalema, the Muslims’ Ideology. He embarked upon this new phase of his life in 1898.

DR. MOHAMMAD IQBAL, THE THINKER OF THE QUR’AN (1873 – 1938)

In the midst of this disorder and turmoil, there rose a man, whom Allah’s bounty had gifted not only with sound reason but also with vision. He attracted the scattered Muslims to their true destiny, predetermined for them by the Qur’an. He pointed out the way to achieve their goals in the context of affairs then prevailing in India. He analyzed the situation around them. It was Dr. Mohammad Iqbal, the Muslim philosopher and thinker of the Qur’an.

Common Ideology: The Base of The Nations

He made it very clear that ‘nations are built on the basis of common ideology. The geographical boundaries of the countries do not form them into a nation.’ He continuously spread this idea. When he sensed that the circumstances were favorable for this idea, in the city of Allahabad, he pronounced it in clear terms that

“An Islamic State was ordained for the Muslims in North West of India.”

Dr. Muhammad Iqbal’s Exposition: Islamic State

In his address, he made it clear that:
“From Islamic point of view a State is the end product of an effort to translate ideal concepts of Islam into realities of space and time. This is a task of converting these lofty concepts into collective human conduct”.

He also made clear that in this State:

1. “Worship” is placing one’s self in subservience to the Laws of Allah

2. “Establishment of Salat” means shaping a society to be in harmony with obedience to the Laws of Allah

3. “Giving of Zakat” implies providing sustenance to all people of the State, indeed to mankind at large

4. Promoting rightful deeds and prohibiting unlawful acts comprises promoting what the Qur’an decrees and prohibiting by law what the Qur’an forbids

5. “Shirk” (duality) means obeying man’s self-made laws

In the context of these items, Dr. Iqbal said:

“Islam does not require loyalty to a crown or a throne; it enjoins keeping faith with Laws of Allah”

Islam as The Muslims’ Magian Heritage

Dr. Iqbal’s efforts, through his visionary thoughts, were at the Deen, the way of life that Allah had given to mankind through the Prophet (pbuh), who had put it into practice. He wanted to bring back this Deen to the world in its original form. It was a treasure that had been lost by Muslims. He told Muslims that the Islam found in various countries of Muslims was not the one, which had been established by the Prophet (pbuh) in Medina. It is, in fact, the Islam fabricated and enforced by monarchies. And now it is being upheld and maintained by our clergy. Historically Zoroastrian Iran took revenge of its defeat not only from Arabs but also from whole of Islam, uprooting its very foundations. Dr. Iqbal summed it up in one sentence:

“The conquest of Iran resulted, not in Iran becoming Islamized, but Islam being Iranized” – (Islam and Mysticism-New Era 28th July 1917).

Dr. Mohammad Iqbal wrote in another letter, “Indian Muslims have been under Iranian influences since centuries. They are not familiar with the Arabic Islam or its objectives. Their ideals, literary as well as social, all are Iranian.” (Iqbalnama Vol.1, P.24)

He calls it Muslims’ Magian heritage and in extreme mental pain, he writes:

“This Magian heritage dried up Islam’s sources of inspiration and stalled -brought to a standstill – both the development of its spirit and the achievement of its objectives,” – (Ahmadiyat and Islam).

Renewal of The Original Deen

To renew the original Deen, he was saying, it is necessary that a piece of territory should be secured. This territory would be free of alien systems. Then an Islamic system based on the guidance from the Qur’an can be established in it. This was the objective, which he placed before the nation in 1930. He was clear in his mind that achievement of that objective would:

Enable Islam to free itself from the effects of monarchies and thus to break the shackles of inertia which has gripped the culture, education and sharia of Muslims for centuries. Because of this freedom, there will be a renaissance of the Deen. The revived Deen will be closer to spirit of the modern times (Presidential address at Allahabad-1930). This was only possible through the Qur’an’s Concept of Government.

Earlier, in his collection of “Lectures” – The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam -he had observed:

Under the present circumstances, the way out for us is to scrape away the stubborn layers of Un-Islamic influence from the mirror-face of Islam that have completely blocked its dynamism and evolution. (We should) renew the genuine values of liberty, integrity and equality and make such a renewal the base on which to erect our moral, social and political systems that should reflect the simplicity as well as universality of real Islam (Sixth address).

Parasites on Islam: Monarchy, Mullahism And Monasticism

He knew that the toughest opposition to Islam would be from the religious hierarchy. It is because religion had become a means of livelihood for the clergy. When it adjusts itself to the rulers, religion also becomes a means of wielding power, and influence. On the other hand, in real Islam, the institution of theocracy would lose its existence. If one reads Iqbal’s poetry from end to end, one will find him extremely critical of the Mullah. He holds the Mullah responsible for the ruin of Muslims. He is found emphasizing to Muslims:

You have lost your pristine quality,
O victims of Monarchy, Mullahism and Monasticism!

Dr. Mohammad Iqbal expressed his understanding in his presidential address to All India Muslim Conference meeting (held in March 1932) when he said:

The grandeur of our Deen is lying shackled by primitive superstitions of our Mullahs and Jurists and is begging to be let free. From spiritual angle we are in a prison house of emotions and situations, which we built around ourselves during centuries past. It is a matter of shame for us seniors that we could not prepare our young generation to withstand the economic, political, and religious crises that are going to unfold.

In his view the religious hierarchy would oppose the new State based on the original Islam because it would be based on the Laws of the Qur’an. For this reason it would need a lot of courage and determination to pursue the achievement of such a State. Hence he emphasized in his speeches that:

Sooner or later, the Islamic world is going to face the question whether there is room for evolution in Islamic laws. This is a very important question and would require strenuous mental effort for an answer. The answer should certainly be in the affirmative in case the Islamic world addresses this question in the spirit of Umar -that Umar who was the first and foremost freedom loving mind in Islam, and who, during the last moments of life of the Prophet (pbuh) had the courage to say, “For us the Book of Allah will suffice!”

Dr. Iqbal knew that the system based on pure Qur’anic concepts, values, injunctions, principles, commandments would be at the mercy of the blockheads who support every non-Qur’anic system. In the Qur’anic system, there would be no room for personal rule – whether in the form of monarchy, dictatorship, or even in the form of Western democracy. It would be opposed to Western Imperialism and to nationalism based on race or territory. It would accept neither Western capitalism, nor Soviet communism. For this reason, this modern Islamic State would be opposed not only by the religious establishment but also by other nations of the world. No nation will tolerate the establishing of the Qur’anic system in any part of the world. The criticism against the Western nations and their civilization that appears in Iqbal’s poetry is a warning to Muslims that the opposition to their plans (to implement the Qur’anic injunctions) would be from the entire world.

This has been proved by history. The toughest opposition to the Pakistan Movement did come from our theocratic establishment and the Peers (custodians of monasteries). This opposition is still continuing. The conflict has been raging from eternity. Dr. Iqbal describes institutions of theocracy, monarchy and monasticism as curses for humanity and a calamity from Allah:

There are four calamities in this land: The usurious moneylender – the moneylender’s practice of lending money at an extortionate rate, the monarch, the Mullah, and the Peer.

Dr. Iqbal’s Concept: Sovereignty is The Qur’an

It was because of the keen awareness of this state of affairs that Dr. Iqbal gave the concept of a modern State in which sovereignty rests in the Book of Allah, the Qur’an. He conceived that it would result only when Islam comes back on the world scene in its pristine form. Dr. Iqbal made it clear that in this new State, Laws of the Qur’an will be supreme.

As a philosopher, as a poet, as a writer, as a thinker, and above all as a scholar for the teachings of the Qur’an, he emphasized the establishment of Islam.

MOHAMMAD ALI JINNAH, THE QUR’AN’S PRAGMATIC ADVOCATE LEADER (1876 – 1948)

Here Dr. Mohammad Iqbal’s far-reaching vision put him in search of a person of perception and sincerity – a person who would wage a war to regain the lost status of the Muslim nation. In this context, his letter to the Quaid-i-Azam will help in understanding how he proposed a solution to the economic problems which occur in enforcing of an Islamic order. He wrote:

After a long, deep study of Islamic laws I have arrived at the conclusion that if this system of laws is promulgated appropriately, at least the economic rights of every individual can be safeguarded. However, the promulgation of Islamic Sharia is not possible without the establishment of one or more independent Muslim states. Do you not think that the time for such a demand has arrived? Letter dated May 28, 1938 (Reference “Quaid-i-Azam and his times” by Raees Ahmad Ja‘fri).

He succeeded in his search, and in 1938 he made over his brief to an advocate, who was endowed with integrity and sincerity as well as the vital experience for the mission. It was Muhammad Ali Jinnah on whom the Muslim nation conferred the title of Quaid-e-Azam, or the Great Leader.

Qur’anic Government and Religious Opposition
(No Theocracy)

This thin but wise leader presented the case entrusted to him with good judgment, integrity and devotion. The courts of the world were wonder struck with his performance. His sincerity in his fight for the independence of his nation earned him success. The question is how he contested the suit entrusted to him.

Dr. Iqbal left this world while still engaged in his campaign of establishing a modern and truly Islamic State. Quaid-i-Azam took over his mission. At the outset, he declared that the system of Government in the new State would be Qur’anic. He also reaffirmed Iqbal’s solemn promise that there would be no priestly monopoly. Addressing the young generation in Aligarh at Muslim University Students Union, he said:

Muslim League has done at least this much, that it has liberated you from clutches of the reactionary elements amongst Muslims and has shown that those who are pursuing the agenda of self-interest, are traitors to the national cause. I have no doubt in my mind that it has freed you from fetters of the so-called Maulvis or Maulanas (Speeches of Quaid-e-Azam, Part I, P.48).

The Quaid-i-Azam made a categorical declaration in The Muslim League Convention in Delhi on April 11, 1946 that:

Let us understand in clear terms what our war is about. What is our goal? Please remember our goal is not theocracy. We do not want a theocratic state.

After the establishment of Pakistan in 1947, as Governor General of Pakistan, in February 1948, he said in a broadcast to the American people:

In Pakistan, there will be no theocracy – a system in which the government is turned over to religious establishment for fulfilling its self-appointed divine mission.

The clear declarations of Dr. Mohammad Iqbal and Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah were a shock to the religious establishment. They had entertained fond hopes that when an Islamic system was established in this country, they would be the sole spokesmen and referees on matters pertaining to the Shariah. But the Quaid-i-Azam told them very clearly that the Qur’anic system did not accept the monopoly of any religious hierarchy.

Influence of The Qur’an

To what extent the Qur’an’s greatness and preciseness had influenced the Quaid-i-Azam can well be judged from many of his statements such as:

All except the ignoramuses, – ignorant persons – are aware that the Qur’an is a compendium – short but complete summary – of Muslim way of life encompassing all laws relating to faith, civics, trade, jurisprudence, armed forces, and criminal and civil codes. Whether it is religious ritual or everyday matters, is it the question of purity of the soul or cleanliness of the body, collective obligations or individual rights, it has laws on every subject. That is why the Prophet advised that every Muslim should have Qur’an with him and be his or her own guide in matters of faith (Message to the Nation on Eid in 1945).

The “Westernized” Mohammad Ali Jinnah, Quaid-i-Azam (the great leader), had such a faith in lucidity and greatness of the Qur’an!

Understanding of an Islamic State

Quaid-i-Azam had a very clear understanding of an Islamic State. In answer to a question by students of Usmania University, Hyderabad (Deccan), he said:

In Islamic Government the hub for obedience and loyalty is Allah and practical shape of the concept is obedience to the commandments and principles laid down in the Qur’an. Islam is not about obedience to a king or a house of parliament or any other person or institution. Commandments of the Qur’an lay down the parameters of our freedom and limits in political and economic spheres. In other words, an Islamic government is a rule of Qur’anic principles and commandments. For this rule to be enforced you need territory and a state (daily Inqilab, Lahore, August 2, 1941).

The above explanation demonstrates that Quaid-i-Azam had a crystal clear understanding as to what distinctively makes a state; an Islamic. Thus, the basic constitution of the State of Pakistan comes forth. Only the Qur’anic injunctions form the basis of the constitution and laws. No other source of laws would be acceptable for a modern state.

Just go back to the Indo-Pak history. You will see the Muslims of India were divided into parties and sects. In spite of these differences, what was the common factor that could make these entirely dissimilar elements converge on one point? He raised this question himself in the annual meeting of the Muslim League held in Karachi in 1943. First he asked:

What is the cord that would bind Muslims into one entity; which is the rock on which their Millat (nation) is founded; what is the anchor that provides stability to the boat of this Millat?

He, then, himself gave the answer:

That binder, that cord, that rock, and that anchor is the great Book of Allah, the Holy Qur’an. I have unshakable faith in our achieving ever increasing unity as we proceed. One Allah, one Prophet, one Book, one Ummah!

He further added:

I am neither a Maulvi, nor a Mulla, nor do I have pretensions – asserted claims – to mastery of theology. However, I have made an attempt to study the Qur’an and Islamic laws on my own. This great book has in it, guidance on all aspects of human life whether it is the spiritual or social dimension, political or economic aspect of life. In fact nothing is beyond the scope of Qur’anic guidance (Usmania University, Hyderabad Deccan, 1941).

Much more can be said on this topic. Anyhow, on the basis of his statements we are clear about the model that Quaid-i-Azam had before him. It was nothing but the great Book, the Qur’an, which is a complete compendium of life.

False And Fabricated Report

“Quaid-i-Azam and Economics” is a full-fledged field of study on which a lot can be said. There is a false and fabricated report that Pakistan was created for safeguarding the interests of capitalists and feudal lords. To exposing this fabrication we quote a couple of instances which reflect the true ideology of Quaid-i-Azam.

In 1943-44 the Movement of Pakistan was at the climax of its struggle. It was necessary for the Muslim League to take affluent people on to its platform. But look what the Quaid-i-Azam says at this critical moment. In his presidential address to a special meeting of All India Muslim League held in Delhi in 1943, he made it clear:

At this juncture I want to warn the zamindars (feudal/landlords) and capitalists, that they are living in luxury as part of a satanic system, which so intoxicates people, that they refuse to listen to reason. Lust for usurping fruit of hard-earned labour of the masses has become second nature to them.

Often I have visited villages. I have observed that there are hundreds of thousands of people who cannot afford one square meal a day. Is this what we should call civilization? Is this the destiny that is called Pakistan? If so, I wash my hands off Pakistan! If these capitalists have an iota of sense they should keep pace with changing times. If they fail to do so, we shall not be able to help them! (Speeches and Writings of Jinnah-P.554)

And he showered glad tidings to the poor when, while addressing Muslim workers on March 1, 1945 in Calcutta, he said:

I am an old man. Allah, in His mercy, has endowed me with means enough that I can spend my old age in comfort. Why should I keep running about day and night enduring hardship? My struggle is not for capitalists; I am doing this hard labour for the poor. I have witnessed scenes of painful poverty. We shall endeavour that every one in Pakistan should live a life of prosperity.

Our Hard Luck: The Worse Still Operative

It is from these facts that we can understand why majority of our religious leaders acted as tools of others in opposing the establishment of Pakistan. And why they still carry on their opposition by raising new and confused issues every other day. For the last almost sixty years they have been carrying out a campaign to establish theocracy as a means to grab power under the cover of An Islamic revolution. Had they not stirred turmoil in the name of religion, the nation’s ship of destiny would not have strayed so grossly off its course. It is due to the confusion spread by them that the general public has moved away from the objectives of the establishment of Pakistan, and is now in a state of doubt about the very rationale of Pakistan.

It is to our hard luck that when the time for drawing up the laws came, neither Quaid-i-Azam, nor Dr. Iqbal were there on the scene. Worse, after the creation of Pakistan our theocratic elements started demanding enforcement of Islamic laws, on the basis that “Pakistan was created in the name of Islam!” – However each sect’s version of Islam differed considerably according to Jurisprudence of their ‘school of thought’ mainly but not exclusively, in personal law related matters.

Hindus had willy-nilly accepted the partition of India but they were, in their heart of hearts, not reconciled to it. While Jawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964) was signing up the partition plan on behalf of the Congress, he was also telling his people that:

“Our scheme is that we should let Mr. Jinnah have his Pakistan and afterwards create such economic and other factors which would compel Muslims to beg us for rejoining India” (Pakistan Faces India, P.99).

G. A. PARWEZ, THE QUR’AN’S PURSUIT OF EXCELLENCE (1903- 1985)

Ghulam Ahmad Parwez was one of the fighters for the Movement of Pakistan. At the behest of the Quaid-i-Azam, he took up the cause at the forefront of the religious side and faced the “Nationalist Ulamas” – religious scholars. He made the concepts clear through his articles, and the Bazm-i-Iqbal meetings he used to arrange after the All Muslim League gatherings. He also brought out Monthly Tolu-e-Islam on the behest of Dr. Mohammad Iqbal in 1938. Among the freedom fighters, he was the only person who was allowed to meet the Quaid-i-Azam without making prior appointment.

His contributions are numerous. We’ll elaborate the salient features that fall within the purview of The Story of Pakistan.

Idea of Pakistan: The Forgotten Ideology

Elaborating the Idea of Pakistan, Ghulam Ahmad Parwez said:
“Before Partition, we asserted that the Muslims of the sub-continent had their distinct culture and way of life and needed a separate homeland where they could live and develop according to their own Ideology. The demand was conceded and Pakistan was established. The biggest Islamic State appeared on the map of the world.”

But what happened thereafter? G. A. Parwez says:

Pakistanis forgot completely that their State was created to give shape to their own Ideology. During the struggle for Pakistan our slogan of Islamic Ideology was not defined: It was not very necessary to do so then. After the establishment of Pakistan, it became absolutely necessary that the slogan should be determined and defined categorically otherwise even the first step towards achieving the objective of Pakistan could not be taken. But we ignored the objective, and meanly selfish gains near at hand took the better of us.

We had a Constituent Assembly from the day Pakistan came into being. It was the duty of this body to define our Ideology, and then, on the basis of the definition, to formulate our Constitution. It did neither. Apparently the members of the Constituent Assembly were themselves not clear about the Ideology, and the pity of it is that they made no attempt, none whatsoever, to get together material, which could help clarify their minds on the subject. May be it served their individual interests to drag out the discussions making them as long as they could.

Years rolled on, one after another, without producing a constitution. Every one talked of Islamic Ideology. We were engrossed in following foreign ways handed down to us by the past. It took nine long years for the Constituent Assembly to give the country a constitution. And the constitution it gave was a constitution of many compromises. It was adorned itself with the dignified name of “Islamic” but in fact it had nothing to do with the basics of Islam. According to G. A. Parwez, this was nothing except the “breach of the basics of Islam”. This “diseased constitution of 1956 met the fate it richly deserved and was abrogated in October 1958.”

Parameters of Islamic Ideology

Every one has continued talking of the Islamic Ideology. The question before us is “What is Islamic Ideology”? It was G. A. Parwez who defined this Ideology. He said:

Ideology is a philosophical term meaning the ‘Science of Ideas’. ‘Idea’ is again a subtle and very comprehensive term. It is unnecessary for our present purpose to go into the details of the term. Suffice it to say that ‘Idea’ means a basic concept, and that the basic concepts on which any ‘system’ is built constitutes its ‘Ideology’. Since Ideology pre-supposes the existence of a system, the question arises whether Islam is a ‘system’.

“Yes”, he held, “Islam is a system. Islam is not a ‘religion’ in the ordinary sense of the word. Religion is the English equivalent for the Arabic word Madhab, which does not occur even once in the whole of the Holy Qur’an. The Qur’an has, instead, used the word Addeen for Islam, which means a particular way of life”.

The Concept of God In Religion And The Implications

The basic idea of Madhab (religion) is that God – the god created by the figment of human imagination – is sitting somewhere away from the universe. He is like a king or a dictator. If someone incurs the king’s wrath, he is doomed and is subjected to all kinds of afflictions. The only way out is to humor the king by reciting his praises, flattering him, making offerings to him, seeking the intervention of those near about him. The moment the king is placated all the troubles vanish and are replaced by rich gifts, awards of honour, inclusion among the king’s trust worthies, and so on. Since the god created by man’s imagination is on the pattern of a king, the devotees of the god try to appease him by ‘means’ similar to those adopted for humoring a king. The ‘means’, so adopted, are given the name of religious ceremonies or rituals.

According to this concept of God, man does not require to lead a social or collective life. His relationship with his God is essentially an individual and a private affair. In seclusion he seeks, through worship, God’s forgiveness and bounties, and having done that, proceeds according to his sweet will, to engage in matters material and mundane. He is a religious person.

Tracing the history of religion, Parwez says: Religion came about at an early stage in human development. It was the time when man was still ignorant of the “how and why” of the working of the universe or the threatening forces of nature: lightning, clouds, floods, fire, disease, etc. He was quite unable to hold “his own” against them. In that stage man trembled at the sight of everything more powerful than him and in trying to appease it, made obeisance in complete surrender and submission.

The Qur’an’s Concept of God And The Implications

There is another concept of God, which has been granted to man through Divine Revelation. According to this revealed concept, God is a Being who controls the entire universe and moves it onto its final destiny in accordance with certain unchanging laws. According to these laws, everything in the universe from its initial stage, grows, develops, and, in time, attains its full stature. It is just like the seed which grows gradually into a huge tree. Man is no exception. There are God’s permanent laws that govern man’s development. According to the revealed concept of God – that concept of God, which He has given Himself – the relationship between man and God comes about through the laws which He has designed for man’s development. To understand the Essence of God and to know ‘what He is’, this is beyond the scope of human intellect. However, we can understand about Him through His Laws, which are important to our development. Such laws are contained in the Holy Qur’an. Those who follow them they nurture their personality and excel forward. Those who contravene them are deprived of growth like the seed which happens to be buried under hard soil. G. A. Parwez terms these laws as the Revealed Laws and wants to implement these laws. For this purpose he says: A person living alone by himself needs no rules or regulations to guide his conduct. Rules become necessary when people live together. Far away from habitation in a jungle, it makes little difference whether one keeps to the right or to the left. In a city, however, it does make a difference because if the rule of the road is violated, untoward consequences follow forthwith. The revealed laws help mankind as a whole to live together amicably and peacefully. People living together – not as they please – but according to some law, form an organized society, bound together by a system or an order. The order, which the Holy Qur’an conceives, is termed Addeen. In other words it means a system for living collectively within the boundaries of the revealed Laws of Allah.

How should one lead one’s life? What are the principles? For this purpose, G. A. Parwez refers the Qur’anic term Kalemah qualified with the word tayyib. The meaning of tayyib generally is pleasant. But when it is used to qualify a tree, it refers to a tree, which bears exquisitely fine fruit. Says the Holy Qur’an:

Kalema-e-tayyiba is like a shajar-e-tayyib, the roots of which hold the soil deep and firm, whose branches spread out in the sky high and wide and which bears fruit perpetually in conformity with God’s Laws” (14:24).

With this example in mind, G. A. Parwez says that Islamic Ideology consists of never-changing principles or concepts of life, which are capable of evolving, unhampered by the limitation of Time and Space, a universal social order for the good of humanity at large.

But human co-operation is necessary for this purpose. That is why G. A. Parwez says:
“The comparison of Islamic Ideology with a tree has another noteworthy aspect. To ensure its growth, a seed should be healthy and capable of taking root, growing, blossoming and bearing fruit. Then, it is necessary that it should be taken care of in matters like preparation of soil, manuring, watering, supplying heat and light, protecting it against seasonal changes and destructive effects of insects and animals. The Holy Qur’an points to this aspect in its own unique way. It says that the healthy concept of life Ideology or KaIema-e-tayyiba revealed by God has the capacity to rise high towards Him, that is, it can attain the heights, which He has destined for it. But it cannot rise high by itself: it is man’s co-operation, which helps it rise.”

In the Qur’an ideology makes up what we call Faith (Eemaan) and the means to give the Ideology a practical shape are termed A ‘maal-e-Saaleha. (i.e. good deeds) It follows, therefore, the Kalema-e-tayyiba or Ideology forms the objective of the Islamic Order and A‘maal-e-Saaleha constitute the program for attaining the objective. Applying this concept G. A. Parwez elaborates that in the present context you can say that Ideology provides the ‘Objectives Resolution’ of an Islamic State, its ‘Constitution’ gives political form to the Resolution and its laws prescribe the program for helping the people attain their destiny.

Two Concepts of Life And Implications

This brings us to two concepts of life: Material Concept – also called Mechanistic Concept of life – and Qur’anic Concept of life.

Material Concept of Life and the Implications

The Material concept of life is that man like other animals, is nothing but his physical body, which lives according to the physical laws of nature and, after a time, according to the same laws, its mechanism stops to function, bringing about its death with which the individual concerned comes to a final end. This is the mechanistic concept of life, and the social order, which is based thereon, aims at catering for the physical well being of the people living within the State. The provision for the individual’s need is met sufficiently with ease, this makes the state better.

This concept, in the view of the Holy Qur’an, degrades man to the animal level and is Kufr.

… … And those who reject (the Qur’anic concept of life) avail of material things and eat and drink, as do the animals, their abode is hell (whose fire reduces the dignity of man to ashes) (47: 12).

Qur’anic Concept of Life and the Implications

G. A. Parwez believes in the other concept of life, which he calls as “The Qur’anic concept of life”. He says that man is something more than his physical body. He has, besides a physical body, a Personality or Self, which no one else in the animal world possesses. Human Personality is neither the outcome of material evolution, nor is subject to physical laws. Every child at birth, gets Personality as a gift from God, whether born in a king’s palace or beggar’s hut, in the house of a Brahmin or an out-cast, or of Muslim or non-Muslim parents. The gift is, however, not in a developed form, but in a potential form with realizable possibilities. For the development of human Personality there are God-given laws, as there are laws for the growth of a man’s body. If Personality develops according to the God-given Laws, it begins to manifest, within human limits, what are in their highest and limitless form, called Divine Attributes. A developed Personality does not disintegrate with the death of man’s body, but lives on and on through further evolutionary stages of life. The purpose of man’s life is the development of his Personality.

G. A. Parwez brings forth the evidence of the Holy Qur’an at this point. The Holy Qur’an, according to him, says that for the development of human Personality man should:

1. Gain control over the forces of the physical world and keep open his achievements, according to the Laws of God, for the good and well being of mankind at large
2. Have all that is required to maintain life but without the egg-shell the embryo can never develop into a chicken
3. Lead a corporate life and establish a social order in which the physical needs of every individual shall be adequately met and he shall have full opportunity and means for the development of his Personality.

G. A. Parwez makes it clear that a social order functioning in this manner becomes an Islamic State, which makes itself responsible to see that every citizen is provided equitably with the basic needs of life as well as the means and opportunities for the development of his Personality. He also emphasises that the State is not an end in itself. According to the Holy Qur’an,

It is a means to an end, the end being the development of man’s Personality, which it is impossible to achieve except in an independent, welfare state. Therefore, the justification for the establishment of an Islamic State, nay, for its very existence, is that it makes itself responsible for the development of every citizen’s Personality as well as his physical body. The State, which fails to fulfil this responsibility, cannot be called an Islamic State.

In this State, G. A. Parwez identifies the relationship between the individual and the State. He further says that a glance at the history of man’s social life is enough to show that from the very beginning the one problem, which has frustrated man, has been that of the relationship between the State and the individual. Man has devised several social orders in which, when stress was laid on society or State, the individuality of the people went by the board, and when individuality received consideration, the State disintegrated. The Holy Qur’an has given a social order in which both become stronger and firmer day-by-day, man’s individuality in integration and the State in cohesion and solidarity. The secret of Qur’anic Social Order lies in this unique relationship where obedience is only to God.

According to G. A. Parwez, the Holy Qur’an has declared in clear terms that an individual, a society or a State has no right to claim obedience from any person. But we cannot see God, nor have we ever heard His voice. How can we then obey Him? The answer is that obedience is not to God personally. It is through the Laws He has revealed in the Qur’an. For securing obedience to Law, it is necessary to have some properly constituted Enforcing Agency. The Agency for Enforcing God’s Laws is the Islamic State and obedience to God means, in practice, obedience to the State, which enforces His Laws. This was the very justification which G. A. Parwez provided for the establishment of Islam in a country and particularly in Pakistan.

Modus Operandi in Islamic State

Now the question is: “Who will fulfill God’s responsibilities?”

God says to the Islamic State: since you take obedience from the people in “My name”, you should give them what I have promised to give, that is, fulfil the responsibilities which I have assumed in respect of mankind. If you fail to fulfil these responsibilities to the people, you lose your right to their obedience. The two go together. Therefore, in the Qur’anic Social Order (QSO), the relationship between the individual and the State is a two-sided affair. The individual obeys the Laws of God through the Agency of the State and the State honors the promises God has made to man. This constitutes a mutual contract between the individual and the State. The Holy Qur’an mentions this mutual contract in brief with very comprehensive terms:

Allah has bought from the believers their lives and what they have of material things so that He may give them Jannah (paradise) (9: 111).

Elaborating the meaning of this verse, G. A. Parwez says that the people entrust their lives and property to the State, which undertakes to enforce the Laws of God, and, in return, the State gives them Jannah (paradise). You know that there is a Jannah, which is to come after a man’s death, but the Holy Qur’an uses the term Jannah also for the Social Order established here, on this earth, in which every individual is assured, and he is actually provided with all that is required for the development of his body and his Personality, and is free from want, anxiety and fear. According to the contract referred to above, the individual submits to His laws, without any compensation, his life and property to the Islamic State. In return the State assumes full responsibility for providing him the basic necessities of physical life and all the means required for the development of his Personality. By this arrangement, the individual, even after surrendering his life and property to the State, preserves his Individuality or Self. In other words this helps him develop and gain in strength day by day. And on the other hand, the State gets established on firm and solid grounds. The Laws of God through their observance by the individual as well as the State, ensure both the above objects.

It is here that G. A. Parwez brings to the forefront that the State would be unable to discharge its huge responsibilities unless the sources of sustenance and means of production are placed under its control. There is nothing surprising about it. After the people surrender willingly their lives and all else to the State, the question of individuals owning anything ceases to exist. The means of production pass on silently to the control of the State to enable it to fulfil its responsibilities of providing the people with the necessities of life and means for development of their Personality. But by this control over the means of production, the Islamic State does not become on a par with a Communist State. There is a world of difference between the two. A Communistic State, or for that matter of any Secular State, has no permanent principles to guide or control its activities. An Islamic State is, however, bound irrevocably by unchangeable principles given by the Holy Qur’an. This makes G. A. Parwez unique in exposing the details of the working of an Islamic State.

There are, as stated above, laws governing the growth of the human body and laws for the development of his Personality. The Holy Qur’an calls the latter laws Kalemaat Ullah and says they are unchangeable. Kalemaat is the plural of Kalemah, a term which, the Qur’an uses for Ideology. Therefore, Kalemaat UIlah would mean the concepts of life which taken together, make up Islamic Ideology and admit of no change. In the words of the Holy Qur’an:

The Kalemah revealed by the Nourisher has been made complete in truth and justice. There is none who can change His concepts (6: 116).

In other words, Islamic concepts of life (ideology) are complete as well as unchangeable. They constitute Inviolable – safe from violation – Principles or Permanent Values and it is through observing them that the development and integration of human Personality comes about. Since the provision of the means of’ this development is the essential responsibility of the Islamic State, its entire activity will be guided throughout by the God-given Inviolable Principles or Permanent Values. Observance of Permanent Values results, in the life of an individual, in showing up, within human limits, Divine Attributes. For instance, God is Aleem (all knowing) and Khabeer (fully informed). A developing Personality will imbibe these qualities as far as possible within human limits, and become Aleem and Khabeer within the sphere of human activities. Similarly, in consonance with God’s Attributes of Robubiyyat and Razzaqiyyat a developing Personality must cherish the feeling for helping others in their development and in giving them preference over itself. The criterion for judging whether a Personality is or is not developing, is the extent to which it manifests those attributes, limited of course to man’s restricted sphere.

This modus operandi, according to Parwez, makes the State a symbol of Divine Attributes. It is because when a State bases itself and its program on Permanent Values; it manifests Divine Attributes much more prominently than an individual. The distinguishing feature of an Islamic State is that, within due limits, it brings out a manifestation of Divine Attributes here, there and everywhere throughout its activities. It means that the administration in an Islamic State is conducted on the basis of Permanent Values. The State becomes a symbol of Divine Attributes guaranteeing fulfillment of God’s promises and the individual remains always busy in striving hard to imbibe in himself through the Islamic Society, Divine Attributes as best as he can. And there is no difficulty in determining whether a State is Islamic or otherwise, since the Holy Qur’an has dealt at great length with Permanent Values as well as Divine Attributes.

Now summarizing it all in a nutshell, the final position is that

1. Islamic Ideology is another name for Permanent Values or Inviolable Principles elaborated in the Holy Qur’an

2. An Islamic State is established for the sole purpose of introducing Permanent Values in life

3. The first and the foremost duty of an Islamic State is to provide means for the growth and development of the human body as well as Personality

4. A State is known to be Islamic from its being a symbol of Divine Attributes detailed in the Holy Qur’an.

In order to make this entire working feasible, G. A. Parwez takes up, as example, some of the Qur’anic Permanent Values to make the process clear:

1. Respect man as man

Every human being, solely on account of his being a human being, deserves to be respected. Says the Holy Qur’an:

And verily we have made children of Adam deserving of respect (17: 70).

This verse makes no distinction between black and white, poor and rich, believer and unbeliever, caste or creed, but is of general application embracing all humanity.

What distinguishes man from other animals is the gift of human Personality, which every child gets at birth from God. The respect is, in fact, due to human Personality. Its basic characteristic is freedom and it is every soul’s freedom that has to be recognized and honored.

2. Humanity is one

The Holy Qur’an says:

The whole of humanity is one entity (2: 213).

What works against the oneness of mankind is its division into groups, tribes, parties, sects, and nations on the man-made basis of distinctive interests as opposed to the general interest of all. But it is the good of all, which has the capacity to endure. In the words of the Holy Qur’an:

That which benefits humanity as a whole endures on this earth (13: 17).

To bring about universal brotherhood of man, mere expressions of good will, amity and tolerance won’t do. It requires a dynamic social order, built on the basis of Permanent Values to realize it. And the first and the foremost objective, which the Qur’anic Social Order (QSO) or an Islamic State has in view, are the interest of all humanity and the molding of it into one indivisible whole.

3. Human freedom

No individual shall enforce his will on another. All will obey voluntarily the revealed Laws of Allah through the agency of an Islamic State, which undertakes to enforce those Laws.

The Holy Qur’an says:

No one whom Allah has given a code of law and authority to enforce the law and whom He has favored with Revelation, shall tell people ‘Obey me’ and not Allah, but will say that through obedience to the Book, which you read and study, you should help nourish one another (3:78).

Free is he who hasn’t to toe another’s line but obeys, out of his own free will, Laws of Allah and such of man-made laws as conform to those laws.

4. Co-operation

Man shall live a life of cooperation with fellow men and not a secluded life.

The Qur’anic injunction is:

Co-operate in what will add to life’s richness and help safeguard God’s Laws, and co-operate not in becoming less firm or going beyond those Laws (5: 2).

Co-operation will, however, be in matters, which help man’s development. Willing cooperation by one helps him integrate his Personality; working under duress disintegrates it. Unhealthy social order not only increases duress but also encourages compulsion by applying the lever of want. Islamic Social Order, on the other hand, makes itself responsible to see that no citizen is stranded by non-fulfillment of wants and is thereby exposed to duress.

5. Justice

The Holy Qur’an says:

Verily Allah ordains justice (16: 90).

Honoring of Rights is justice. Take what is your due and nothing more; give with full measure what is due to others; where there are more than one contestant, every one of them should get his due and nothing less. Justice gives confidence and security. Every citizen has a right to be provided with work, the basic necessities of life and the means of development of his Personality. Islamic Social Order assumes these three-fold responsibility and discharges them, as best as it can, with due regard to the unchangeable principle of justice.

6. Restoring disturbed proportions

The Qur’an ordains:

Verily Allah ordains justice and restoration of disturbed proportions (16: 90).

Ehsaan is derived from husn, which is beauty or proportion. In nature there is beauty and proportion everywhere; so it is necessary for man to see that his own self as well as things around him should not be heavier or leaning to one side. Proportion might be disturbed here and there. Islamic Social Order cannot withstand disturbance. It tries to restore proportion without delay in accordance with the Inviolable Principle of Ehsaan. Old age, illness, accident, additions to family, etc., strain the family income. Unless the deficiency is made good in time, suffering must follow. By assuming the responsibility for supplying the basic needs of citizens an Islamic State is always prepared to make up the deficiency and to restore the disturbed equilibrium in the life of the family concerned. The reaction of the State is equally prompt if and when similar disturbances of proportion might occur in national affairs.

7. Consultation

The Holy Qur’an says:

And they determine their affairs by mutual consultation (42:38).

In other words it is the consultation at all levels that matters, whether these are petty affairs concerning individuals or the matters of national or international importance.

Islamic Social Order is essentially democratic. But the discussions shall always uphold the Qur’anic principles. The Islamic Social Order never infringes the Qur’anic Principles.

The Holy Qur’an concerns itself mainly with broad principles of life and very little with detailed instructions. The underlying plan is, as explained by the Holy Qur’an itself, that Muslims in all ages and inhabiting different parts of the world should be free, within the ambit of the Qur’anic principles, to determine details to suit their particular circumstances.

Islamic State accepts Qur’anic principles as its basis and keeping them in view, frames by the method of consultation and discussion, whatever laws are needed to meet new situations as they develop from time to time in different ages and climes. Present day democratic legislatures are bound solely and wholly by the rule of the majority, which is liable to change with every change in the political atmosphere. Islamic legislatures, on the other hand, stand on the bedrock of Inviolable Qur’anic Principles and from that firm foundation set themselves whole-heartedly to the task of framing laws for serving the best interests of the people.

8. Pooling of surpluses

Pooling of individual surpluses for the good of all is a Permanent Value. The Qur’anic injunction is:

And keep open what is surplus for use in the way of Allah (2: 195).

Infaaq is derived from nafq, which means a tunnel or a covered passage with both ends open. Wealth comes in at one end, stays inside while it is being used to meet needs of the earner, but through the other end the surplus remains available for use for collective purposes.

Varying capacities for work result in bigger or smaller incomes leaving deficiencies here and surpluses there. Man-made social orders feel unconcerned or helpless and leave the situation to seek its own adjustment. The result is misery for many and luxury for a few, the latter trying always to perpetuate and even enhance the disparity. Islamic Social Order, on the other hand, tackles the situation boldly and rationally, pools the surpluses and uses them to bring about social equilibrium.

9. Islamic State

Says the Holy Qur’an:

You are a dynamic society drawn out for the good of mankind, you enforce the recognized (lawful) and prohibit the unrecognized (unlawful) and have faith in (the Laws of) Allah (3: 109).

The existence among mankind of a people, who will, subject to the Unalterable Principles of the Holy Qur’an, defend freedom of individual will, enforce respect for law, and stop unlawful activities with a stern hand, is one of the Inviolable Principles.

10. Universal brotherhood

Brotherhood of the human race is a charming idea. But verbal professions of high-sounding slogans, in the name of tolerance and religious friendship, cannot achieve it. The effective method for establishing universal brotherhood of man is that a social order should be created on the basis of universal principles, that it should adopt those principles in practical life and that it should then become a living nucleus for gathering people around and realizing the dream of the oneness of humanity. This dynamic social nucleus will generate centrifugal forces out of freedom of will and its achievements. It will recognize no criterion for merit other than what an individual actually is.

These, as examples, are some of the permanent Values taken from the Holy Qur’an. G. A. Parwez exposes them in the framework of an Islamic State to help form an idea of where and how far the Holy Book would take humanity in its evolutionary progress.

The summary of these considerations lead to the following three-fold conclusion:

• Islamic Ideology connotes the sum total of Permanent Values or Inviolable Principles, which have been preserved in their complete and final form in the Holy Qur’an.

• Islamic State is a state, which adopts Qur’anic Permanent Values as its ideal.

• Islamic Constitution is the document, which proclaims the above ideal and details the plan according to which the edifice of the State will rise solid and firm on the basis of Qur’anic Inviolable Principles.

The establishment of this state resulted from a long struggle and G. A. Parwez specifically makes it clear that Islam needs its Free State to become a living system of life. This is the condition, which, if not met, reduces it to the state of just another ‘religion’ where there is hardly any difference between Islam and Vedanta of Hindus, Monotheism of Christians and Zoroastrianism of Iranians. It is for this reason that Dr. Iqbal, in his essay “New Era”, had dubbed ‘Sufism (Myticism) a scaling ladder of the conjurer and an alien growth in Islamic soil’.

THE PRESENT HURDLES IN PAKISTAN

The change of Islam into a religion has provided new meanings to the concept of Islam, where the establishment of Salat has become just the saying of prayers. Zakat is reduced to only giving some money to the poor and to those who beg. Enjoining the merited has turned out to be preaching in the Juma (Friday) prayers. This implies that we do not need a free state for any of the above purposes. And we could easily perform these “obligations” under the British rule or the Hindus’. A Muslim in India, in spite of his present state of helplessness, can also carry these out.

Other hurdles in the form of “Schools of Thought or Sectarianism” have come in vogue. This has divided the Muslims Ummah into various sects, factions, and political and sectarian parties. The Qur’an terms this all a perfidy, a curse and shirk of a huge proportion. It was for this reason that the Prophet (pbuh) was told:

Those who create splits in their system and divide into sects, you have no concern with them, O Prophet. (6:160).

Getting rid of these political and sectarian parties is necessary for establishing Islam in Pakistan. That is why Dr. Mohammad Iqbal gave the idea of Pakistan solely for the establishment of Islam as a living way of life. The Quaid-i-Azam waged a multi-front war for ten long years with the Hindus, the British, the “nationalist” Muslims and the Maulvis and Maulanas. And G. A. Parwez defined the idea of Pakistan, brought forward the detailed descriptions of Islam as a living system of life for this purpose. Allah did gift us the promised piece of land, where despotism, theocracy, and capitalism were to be stamped out because these are foul systems. God’s own light, the Qur’an, had to become a manifesto in the State in accordance with the teachings of the Prophet.

What happened then? It is a sad story. Whatever had happened with Allah’s faith at the hands of nations that preceded Muslims -Jews and Christians – has also happened with Islam. Allah completed the Deen by means of the Qur’an and the Prophet gave this Qur’an to the Ummah. But shortly after departure of the Holy Prophet (pbuh), vested interests started asserting themselves. So this Deen also became a religion like the Deens that had been brought by earlier Messengers. There was one difference, however, that the Qur’an remained safeguarded in its original form, because Allah had Himself guaranteed its safeguarding, whereas the older scriptures had no divine protection. The hurdle is that Islam is still being propagated as religion in Pakistan.

History stands witness to the fact that Islam was first hit by the advent of monarchy, and then by capitalism. Religious hierarchy emerged as guardian to both these enemies of Islam: Monarchy and Capitalism. The trinity (i.e., monarchy, capitalism, and religious hierarchy) converted the Faith to a “religion”. The Faith is not compatible with the religion so the religious establishment left no stone unturned to eliminate the very Faith from the life of the Muslims. This still continues in Pakistan. The Holy Qur’an has practically been made of no account. The protagonists of the Holy Qur’an are the direct hit of the “Ulamas of Traditional Islam”.

ISLAMIC UMMAH’S SENSE OF OBLIGATION

BUT the Islamic Ummah is grateful to:

• Sir Syed Ahmad Khan – for enlightening the nation to the Qur’anic pursuit of excellence in terms of policy of peace in the political field and of religious and educational reforms in the social field and to his remaining stuck to what he spread till the last moment of his life as a Phoenix

• Dr. Mohammad Iqbal -for emphasizing that Islam we inherited from ancestors is not the Islam, which Allah gave us and remaining stuck to removing the deep crust of alien element on it till the last moment of his life through his poetic diction and prose writings and lectures as thinker of the Qur’an

• Quaid-i-Azam -for making the idea of Pakistan a living reality on the map of the world, exposing the fabrications that Pakistan was created for safeguarding interests of capitalists and feudal lords, shunning the theocracy, projecting the teaching of the Qur’an for the establishing Islamic State in Pakistan as a Qur’an’s ardent and pragmatic leader

• G. A. Parwez – for elaborating the Islamic Ideology, developing literature to understand the Holy Qur’an, setting paradigms to establish Islam in its pristine form, and projecting that Islam is:

1. Not a private individual affair but a collective system

2. Not a vehicle of personal salvation but of universal welfare

3. Not an adversary of reason but a liberator of human reason

4. Not a breeder of superstition but a radical challenge to all superstitions

5. Not a preacher of fearful conformity but a creator in man of courage and self-reliance

6. Not a call for rejecting the concrete and the real but an invitation to conquer and subjugate the world of matter.

At present the root cause of our malaise is that the Islam fashioned in the days of monarchies, especially in Abbasids dynasty (750-945), is being upheld and nurtured by the religious hierarchy.

“What to do now” is still a big question.

… This is the Story of Pakistan.

………. And then grandchildren listening to “The Story of Pakistan” from their grandpa went to sleep for the next day to come up afresh for the establishment of Islam.

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Notes:

[1] Between the period of 1600-1658 – afterwards the administration of India was transferred to the Crown

[2] “Kabaddi” is a popular Indo-Pak game resembling prisoners’ base. A single opposition team player crosses over to the enemy line and tries to touch at least one opposite side team player by whatever means of physical trickery, agility and speed then runs back to his own-side without beings captured, in doing so he secures a point for his team.

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