Tag Archives: Quranocracy
Democracy has been a terrible experience in Pakistan since its inception. The events that took place before the year 1958 i.e., before the first Martial Law in the country and those that took place after the year 1988 i.e., the end of the last Martial Law, have been so tragic and so disgraceful that sometimes it appears as if no government exits in the country. The failure of Western democracy is due to the fact that Pakistan came into existence as the outcome of Two Nation theory and the very survival of the country depends on the introduction, here, of an Islamic Social Order. On the other hand, the basic principles of an Islamic Social Order are incompatible with the basic principles of Democracy. The remedy for this ailment is to make a fresh start from the very beginning, by giving the Constitution of the state a new form consistent with the Quranic fundamental principles. That is the only way to make the state of Pakistan happy, prosperous and progressive.
We must realize that the government of an Islamic State is neither Aristocracy, in which the supremacy is that of privileged persons; nor Autocracy, in which the supremacy is that of a dictator or an absolute ruler, nor Bureaucracy, in which the officials reign supreme; nor Theocracy in which the priestly class is the dominant authority; nor Democracy, in which the sovereignty lies in the people. It is ‘Quranocracy’, in which the sovereignty lies in the injunctions, laws and permanent values given by the Quran, which is the only final, complete and unadulterated revealed Book now present on the face of the earth.
The contents of this book shall serve as a guide in order to put into practice an Islamic Social Order in the country, free from exploitation of all kinds. In the first chapter of this book, we have described the defects of a regime based on Western democracy and the incompatibilities of Western democracy with the Islamic Social Order. Further, our own experience of democracy in Pakistan has also been described in some detail.
In the second chapter of this book, it is stated that after centuries of unsuccessful experiments based on man-made laws, modern man is still in search of the kind of laws which are eternal and unchangable, applicable to all, at all times. These laws are available inside the Quran only, which is the last revealed book of Allah. A fairly detailed description of permanent values has been provided in this chapter.
In the third chapter, it is stated that the emergence of Nation-States in the world, has produced a disastrous effect on humanity and that all the political, economic, moral and social problems of the world are the result of the concept of Nationalism.
Nationalism has split up humanity into offensive groups, each being a formidable foe of the other. It has been described further that internationalism is not the remedy for eliminating the effects of nationalism. The remedy lies in universalism, which is the political goal prescribed by the Quran for humanity.
In the fourth chapter of the book, the basic principles of the Quranic Constitution for an Islamic State has been described, which is the ultimate objective of writing this book and which shall serve as a guide to the making of a fresh constitution, in the event that we are determined to make Pakistan a real Islamic State. This constitution based on the fundamental principles of the Quran, shall provide a way out of the present difficulties in which we are deeply entangled. The survival of the State of Pakistan depends on adopting the way of life prescribed by the Quran.
The fifth chapter of this book deals with the position of AHADIS and FIAQ laws in the Constitution of an Islamic State.
In the sixth chapter of this book, it has been said that the Quran does not prescribe the form of Government for an Islamic State. It has been left for the Muslim Ummah to make its own decision in this respect according to the demands of the time. However, the forms of governments prevalent in the modern world have been described in this chapter for the interest of the readers, and finally the views of the writer in this regard.
I earnestly request the intelligentsia of Pakistan, especially our learned lawyers to ponder over this work and to give their comments; because it is only after a combined effort that we can reach the goal of establishing an Islamic Social Order in Pakistan.
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The political objective In this world, as laid down by the Quran for humanity, Is Universalism which shall be achieved by adopting a common code of life, obtainable from the Quranic Injunctions, laws and permanent values.
Tribal instinct persisted in all forms of living, from families and tribes to the present national states. Each social group promotes friendship between its members and hostility towards other group, in order to maintain its own interests. Thus hostility to the outer groups is as characteristic of nations as it was of tribes. Every nation has feelings of ill-will and hatred towards its neighbor. Nationalism is a feeling which is born out of hatred and lives on enmity. It does not form merely a political grouping, it has developed in to a cult which arouses in the Individual passionate devotion to his nation and violent antipathy to other nations. Aldous Huxley says: “Nationalism leads to moral ruin. because it denies universality, denies the existence of a single God, denies the value of the human being as a human being: and because at the same time It affirms exclusiveness, encourages variety, pride and self satisfaction, stimulates hatred and proclaims the necessity and rightness of war.”
Cavour has said: “If we did for ourselves what we do for our country, what rascals we should be. 14
He said further that:
the creed of Nationalism has had three unfortunate results
- Humanity has been divided into a number of nation states with conflicting interests.
- A powerful nation has tempted to exploit the -weaker nations on the pretext of safeguarding its interests.
The absence of moral restraint turned the world “into an arena of beasts” as Wakeman rightly observed, with only one principle in view, that is, might is right” 15
Politicians who follow Michiavelli believe that moral rules are not binding on them. They reject moral considerations as Irrelevant to political affairs.
Emery Reves in his book “Anatomy of Peace” says: Nothing can distort the true picture of conditions and events in this world more than to regard one’s own country as the center of the universe, and to view all things solely In this relationship to this fixed point. It is inevitable that such a method of observation should create an entirely false perspective. Yet this is the only method admitted and used by all the national governments of our world, by our legislators and diplomats, by our press and radio. All the conclusions, principles and policies of the people are necessarily drawn from this warped picture of the world obtained by so primitive a method of observation.
Within such a contorted system of assumed fixed points it Is easy to demonstrate that the view taken from each point corresponds to reality. If we admit and apply this method, the viewpoint of every single nation appears indisputably correct and wholly justified. But we arrive at a hopelessly confused and grotesque overall picture of the world.”
Then in order to prove this assertion the author describes fully how the international events between the two world wars look from some of the major national vantage points. He produced a vivid picture of the disaster which resulted from the mutual conflict of the nation states between the two world wars and the disaster that lies ahead, after the production of Atomic Bomb.
What step the nations of the world have taken to avoid further disaster that hangs on the horizon, as a result of the concept of Nationalism? They have invented Internationalism. There is no going away from the fact that none of the dominant conception of political thought is more abused, more discredited, more prostituted than Internationalism. It has been given a trial in different fields, in its association with the Catholic Church. Socialism, big business, communism, Jewry, Cartels, Freemasonry, Fascism, Pacifism, armament Industry and other movements and organizations with complete failure. Also Internationalism is an utterly misleading term: from its inception it has retarded political and social progress by half a century. Rather early in the industrial age, people of various classes and professions, within the various nation states, began to feel restrained and hindered by their national barriers. Efforts were made to try to overcome these barriers, by establishing contacts and working out common programmes, common movements, common organisations between groups with similar interests in different countries. In a certain time these organisations no doubt strengthened the position and Influence of those who took part in them. But far from overcoming the difficulties which induced their creation, such International organisations stabilized and perpetuated the condition responsible for the difficulties.
Internationalism does not and never has opposed nationalism and the evil effects of nation-state structure. It merely tries to alleviate particular symptoms of our sick world without treating the disease itself. Paradox it may be – but nothing has added more to the strength of national Institutions, nothing has fanned nationalism more than internationalism.
As for instance, the founders of the modem socialism assumed that the working classes ruthlessly exploited as they believed, by the capitalist states, could feel no loyalty towards their particular nations. The interest of the labouring masses in every country were thought to be in opposing and combating capitalist states. Consequently the proletariat was organized on an International basis in the belief that the loyalty and allegiance of the workers would be the exclusive appanage of the internationally organized socialist party. But allegiance and loyalty to a nation state has little, if any thing to do with the economic and social position of the individuals in that state. They made no attempt to weaken or destroy the nation state as such. Their aim was to overthrow the capitalist class and transfer political power to the proletariat within each nation state. They thought that such independent, heterogeneous national resolutions taking place in many countries through coordinated action, either simultaneously, or following each other, would solve the social problem; abolish war between nations, create world peace.
It was soon obvious that these “International working class organizations changed nothing in the worldwide trend towards nationalism. The socialist workers in the various countries had to choose between loyalty to their comrades in the Internationally organized class warfare within nations, and loyalty to their compatriots in the nationally organized warfare between nations, they Invariably chose the latter. Never in any country did organized labour withdraw its support from the nation-state in waging war against another nation-state, even though the latter had a labouring class with the same resentments, the same ideals and the same alms as its own. This failure was the result of the contradiction that lay in the discrepancy between the socialist political Ideal of Internationalism and the socialist economic Ideal of nationalism’ of the means of production. The socialist and communist leaders never called the attention of their followers to the fact that nationalism of the land and of industries cannot be reconciled with the political ideal of Internationalism.
The greater the extent of nationalism, the more power is vested in the nation-state, the more impregnable becomes nationalism. The stronger the nation-states, the more inevitable and the more imminent is the danger of conflict between them. The consistence of a large number of sovereign nation-states with all economic power In the hands of each nation is unthinkable without frequent and violent conflicts. The socialist and communist parties must realise that through their programme of nationalization they have done more to strengthen and buttress the modern totalitarian nation states than have the aristocracy or any feudal or capitalist ruling class.
Internationalism among the Capitalist forces was exactly similar in its development. Industrialists, traders, bankers, also began to feel hampered by the business of nation-states and began to form originations reaching beyond national boundaries. By and large they succeeded in arriving at agreements which excluded competition in their respective domestic markets, in fixing minimum prices and in regulating competition in world market.
Most of these measures were detrimental to the consumers the world over. Their greatest drawback was that they failed to solve satisfactorily or for any length of time the problems they were supposed to solve. Far from leading to a reconciliation of divergent national Interests, such International financial and cartel agreements served only to intensify nationalism among industrialists and bankers, all anxious to strengthen their own positions as national units, against other national units.
The national contingents of these international producing and financing Corporation bodies completely identified with the Interests of their nation-states and in every country governments were backing them by economic policies designed to strengthen the national representative in these International organizations. The direct results of these attempts to Internationalize big business led to an acceleration of economic nationalism, higher tariffs, Irrational subsidies, currency manipulations, and all other devices of government control repugnant to the principles of free enterprise.
League of Nations-
After the ravages of the first world war, the representatives of the nation-states, the national governments themselves, felt that something had to be done to bridge the constantly widening abyss between nations and to prevent a repetition of such devastating wars between them.
From this necessity, the covenant of the League of nations was born. According to the covenant peace was supposed to be maintained through regular meetings and discussions of representatives of sovereign nations having equal rights in an assembly of all nations and In a council comprised of representatives of great powers, as permanent members, and a limited number of smaller powers elected as temporary members by the Assembly. No decision was possible over the veto of any nation. Any national government could withdraw from the League, the moment it did not like the atmosphere.
The League had some success in the non-political fields. It did some excellent research work, and even settled from minor political clashes between smaller nations. But never in its entire history was the League able to settle a conflict in which one of the major powers was involved. After a few short years the construction began to totter and crack. The historical fact remains that never on any occasion was the League of Nations capable of acting when action would have involved the use of force against any of the leading military powers. The League of Nations failed because it was based on the false notion of internationalism, on the Idea that peace between national units, between sovereign nation-states, can be maintained simply by bringing their representatives together to debate their differences, without making fundamental changes in their relations to each other. One of the main reasons for League’s failure was the international disequilibrium brought about by economic, political and social forces In the post war period.
The United Nations Organisation is no better either. U.N.O. Is a complete failure as far as the solution of political and economic problems of humanity are concerned. It is no more than a medium to perpetuate exploitation of one nation by the other. Take for instance, the forcible, treacherous and unlawful usurpation of Kashmir territory by India and the forcible occupation of Palestine by Jews. The Issues lie unsolved with the U.N.O. from the last over forty years. Yet the big powers are reluctant to solve them, on account of their own selfish motives.
There are old Jealousies and ideological differences between Big Five’ and this we witness every day in the proceedings of the Genera Assembly.
The world outlook expressed by the word Internationalism, embodies the greatest misconception and the greatest error of our time.
As already said. Nationalism is the herd instinct. It is one of many manifestations of that tribal Instinct which is one of the deepest am most constant characteristics of man as a social creature. It is collective inferiority complex, as Emery Reves describes, that give conforting reactions to individual fear, loneliness, weakness, inability insecurity, helplessness, seeking refuge in exaggerated consciousness and pride of belonging to a certain group of people. Internationalism, 0i the other hand encourages Nationalism; it implies that various nationalities can be bridged. Yet it recognizes as supreme the sovereign nation-states institutions and prevents integration of peoples in to super national society. Thus the only way of escape from the miserable plight of mankind is the elimination of nation states from the maps of the world.
The world has played enough with the toy of internationalism. The problem we are facing is not a problem between nationalisms. It is a problem of crisis of human society caused by Nationalism and which consequently nationalism or Internationalism can never solve. What I needed is Universalism; a creed and a movement, clearly proclaiming that its purpose is to create peace by a legal order between men beyond and above the existing nation-state structure. (Extracts from “Principle of Political Science” by A.C. Kapoor and “Anatomy of peace” by Emery Reves.)
The holy Quran and Universalism
The Quran Says:
“Mankind was one single nation, and Allah sent messengers with glad tidings and warnings and with them He sent the Book In Truth, to Judge between people in matters wherein they differed. But the people of the Book, after the clear signs came to them, did not differ among themselves, except through mutual contumacy. Allah (by His grace) guided the believers to the truth, concerning that wherein they differed. For Allah guides whom He wills, to a path that is straight.”
The above verse explains that to begin with mankind was one single nation, Differences amongst them arose later on. Messengers of God came to them in succession, giving them the glad tidings of following the right path of union and warning them of the wrong path of disunion, and thus resolved their differences by means of the divine message that was revealed to each of them successively. The object of this resolution of differences was a step towards making mankind again, a one united nation. After the death of each successive messenger of God, people polluted the divine message by their own whims and wishes, resulting in to the reappearance of differences amongst them. The differences arose because their religious leades fell in to schisms and mutual envy.
This process of alternate belief and unbelief in the divine message, with the resultant resolution and recurrence of differences amongst men, continued until Allah revealed a Book the message of which could not be altered. It was not possible to make any change in it. By this message the last messenger of God (p.b.u.h.) laid down the foundations of “One Single Nation.” It was beyond the power of religious leaders to alter the message. Thus they invented a new approach to achieve their heinous design. They Introduced the idea that the entire message revealed to Muhammad (p.b.u.h.) Is not contained inside the Quran. A large portion of it lies outside. Thus putting the Quran into the background they gave the status of revelation to that which is outside the Quran I.e. to Ahadis. This resulted into the appearance of religious sects. Now with the close of the process of Nabuwwat, no new messenger of God shall come to resolve the differences so created. On the other hand, the Quran Is present with us in its original and unadulterated form. The only way to abolish Sectarianism Is to accept the Quran as our guide and accept it as the only book which contains the message revealed to the last messenger (p.b.u.h.) of God.
All other differences which arose amongst mankind, with the passage of time, such as those of race, caste, colour, creed, language etc. can also be Illuminated by means of subservience to the final, complete and the only message of God now present on the face of earth.
One God, one and the final code of life laid down by Him shall result into the formation of one world government.
The concept of a nation-state and of Internationalism is incompatible with the concept of Quranic Social Order. The former concerns the people living within geographical boundaries, while the latter promotes Universalism.
The holy Quran clarifies this point further by saying:
“Mankind was but one single nation, but differed (later). Had it not been for a divine wisdom that went forth, from Thy Rabb, their differences would have been solved long ago.”
This verse makes it clear that mankind, to begin with, was one single nation with one creed. Later, differences arose on account of their self interests which divided them and made them enemies of one another. It was not difficult, for the Creator of mankind, to remove their differences and make them follow one way of life, as in the case of all other animal species. But Allah had bestowed upon man the faculty of “freedom of choice” and will’: and at the same time had provided them guidance by means of revelation; so that humanity may be able to choose the right path, without loosing its freedom of choice. The revelation provides the solution to differences, so as to make humanity a one single nation again. Self interested persons provide obstacles in the way of this divine programme, but they are ultimately bound to fail and surely the humanity shall emerge as a single nation with one code of life provided by the Quran.
The holy Quran, when It addresses the believers, uses the words () and when it addresses humanity, the words used are() In the last chapter of the holy Quran it is said: (114:1-3)
“Say I seek refuge. with the One Who provides nourishment to mankind from its Initial stage to the stage of its final destination; with the One Who Is the Ruler (Sovereign) of mankind and: with the One to Whom subservience is due by the entire mankind.”
But whereas Allah is ()Sustainer of humanity () Sovereign of humanity and () the One to Whom subservience Is due by the humanity, the Quran is () (45:20) a clear guidance to humanity, a guidance beyond the boundries of time and space. a light which makes things clear and makes the ultimate goal of humanity visible.
Thus the object of the final revealed message of Allah, the safety of which Allah has taken upon Himself, is to bring humanity again to live under a Universal Order.
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After giving a trial to democracy the trend of modem western thinkers is that it is wrong to accept the majority decision as right under all circumstances. We have no objective standard, they say, for judging human action. The Italian patriot Mizzini says, “The principle of universal suffrage was a good thing in as much as it provides a lawful method for a people for safeguarding against forces of destruction and continuing their own government. However, in a people who have no common beliefs, all that democracy can do is to safeguard the interest of the majority and keep the minority subdued. We can, he adds, be subject to God or to man, one man or more than one. If there be no superior authority over man, what is there to save us from the subjugation of powerful individuals? Unless we have some sacred or immutable law, which is not man made, we can have no standard for discriminating between right and wrong. A government based on laws other than the God’s will, produces the same results, whether it be despotic or revolutionary one. Without it whosoever be in authority will be a despot. Unless a government conforms to God’s law, It has no right to govern. The purpose of government is to enforce God’s will; If a government fails in its purpose, then it is your duty to try for and bring about a change.” 23.
After centuries of unsuccessful experiments, with man made laws, modern man is still in search of the kind of laws which are eternal, unchangeable, applicable to all and at all times. The source would have to be super human, i.e., the laws given by God Himself. The West had naturally to seek the help of religion to ascertain such laws. They tried Christianity but there was no response. Christianity has got no laws to give. It Is all other-worldliness.
In the words of Joad – “Christianity places man’s life not in this world but in the next. While the next world is wholly good, this world is conceived to be, at least to some extent, evil. While the next world is eternal, life on earth is transitory. For man’s life hereafter, this, his present existence, is to be regarded as a preparation and a training, and its excellence consists in the thoroughness and efficiency with which the training is carried out. Nothing on the earth is wholly and absolutely good. and such good deeds as earthly life contains, are good only as a means of greater goods which are promised hereafter.” 28
Now the question arises, what is that code of life and where to find it?
The man-made laws are limited In scope, conflicting and ever changing; and are thus too fragile to solve the problems of entire mankind. A universal code of life, that can bring peace, can only be found in the objective laws given to humanity through the messengers of God. As the divine codes of life given to humanity by the earlier messengers of God, who appeared successively, have been subjected to the onslaught of human whims and wishes, the only code of life that comprise immutable laws applicable for all the succeeding generations of mankind, through all ages, is the one that lies safely preserved in the pages of the holy Quran, unapproached by falsehood. The Quran lays great stress on the study of history of the foregone nations and advise us to see that they rose when they acted according to the revealed laws and fell from the pinnacle of their glory when they acted in the opposite way. The holy Quran comprises laws, injunctions and permanent values The laws and injunctions given In the Quran. themselves form a vast subject. However we shall describe here only the most prominent Permanent values. There are two beliefs which form the basis of all the permanent values. Let us describe them at the outset–
(1) Belief in One God – According to the holy Quran the belief in One God is neither an academic problem, nor a dogmatic creed. It has practical bearing on the day to day life of a man. Belief in God means the acceptance of the sovereignty of God, or in other words it means the submission of one’s action to the will of God. The word Allah in the Quran is a proper noun and is a combination of the words and The word contains the following underlying concepts:
(1) To seek protection in a state of anxiety. (2) To become perplexed. (3) To be out of sight and to have an exalted status. (4) To accept subservience of some body or to admit sovereignty of some body.
Accordingly the Quranic word Allah’ means the Supreme Existence which is out of sight; whose extremely exalted position leaves the human intellect perplexed; whose sovereignty reigns supreme in the universe and to whom subservience is due by all components of His creation. Allah is beyond human perception
“No vision can grasp Him”.
A finite thing can not grasp an infinite object. However we know Him through His attributes given in the Quran. Accordingly belief in Allah means to accept the sovereignty of One whose attributes are given in the Quran.
The sovereignty of Allah reigns supreme in the physical world as well as in the human affairs.
‘There is no sovereign except Allah”
‘The command is for none but Allah”
“Nor does He share His command with any one whatsoever.”
On the other hand one who believes in Allah is subservient to only One Command and that command is of Allah Himself
“In the subservience of Sustainer, let no body admit any one as partner.”
Allah does not deal with the human affairs directly. In the human world He exercises His command by means of revelation, to his messengers. Thus it is said:
“Say!, shall I seek for judge other than Allah, when it is He Who has sent unto you the detailed book.”
Thus the sovereignty of Allah means the sovereignty of the book of Allah. This in turn is exercised through an organization. The central command of the organization of believers is an instrument to enforce the law and it is not allowed to exercise its personal authority.
2) The other basic concept upon which rest all the permanent values provided by the Quran is the Belief in human personality. Man is composed of two things, physical body and human personality. The physical body is controlled by the physical laws and human personality is controlled by the laws revealed to the messengers of Allah. Physical body is destructible, on the other hand human personality has got potentialities, which when actualized make the developed personality indestructible.
The development of human personality is controlled by human actions. This being a world of cause and effect, every action has got its reaction. In other words, every human action is rewarded. An act may be good or bad. A good act is one which is consistent with the divine laws; bad act is one which is inconsistent with the divine laws. The holy Quran says that the entire machinery of the universe has been created in order that no act of any human being remains unrewarded:
“Allah has created the heavens and the earth for constructive purposes and that every one be repaid for what it has earned, and that they will not be wronged.”
A good act produces a positive or constructive effect on human personality and a bad act has a negative or disintegrating effect. The act may be manifest or concealed, it makes no difference. It requires no outside policing. The reaction is automatic. Even an idea that flashes across the mind, has its impact on the human personality:
(40:19) “He knows the traitor of the eye and that which the bosoms hide.”
“And he who does good (to the extent of) an atoms weight will see it then and he who does ill an atom’s weight will see it then.”
Thus the human body ends with the physical death, while the developed human personality passes on to its next evolutionary stage. This forms the basis of the belief in the Hereafter and thus the basis of all the permanent values provided by divine guidance.
The rest of the permanent values are as follows:-
(1) Respect for Humanity
“We have honored the humanity as a whole.”
It means that Allah has created, all human beings equal by birth worthy of respect. This proclamation was made by the Quran, for the first time in human history, and it is a fundamental human right.
(Note – Meaning of equality – Absolute equality is, in fact, an impossible ideal. Equality means that special privileges of all kinds should be abolished. All barriers of wealth, birth, race and color be removed, so that no one suffers from any kind of social and political disabilities. All should have the right to Equality which means the absence of legal discrimination against any individuals).
(2) Criterion of position in Society
After birth the ranks are according to how far one’s actions are consistent with the divine laws:
“And to all are (assigned) degrees according to their deeds.”
Thus, the measure of greatness of an individual, are his virtues. The more one acts according to the divine laws, the more worthy of respect he becomes:
“Verily the most honored of you, in the sight of Allah is (he who is) the most subservient to the divine law.”
The Quran thus changed the old Criterion of respect for man. From then onwards the measure of respect for man became his virtues instead of relative ones. This single change in the measure for respect for man declared, all the old systems of kingship, priesthood and capitalism, as wrong and hateful. However, the old measures of respect, especially the possession of wealth, still persist in the modern societies; one who possesses big property, bungalows, cars and all other amenities of life is considered respectful, even if he is a smuggler or a trader in narcotics.
No man shall be a slave or a subject to his fellow beings. A man can only be subjective to divine laws and not to any person, however highly placed he may be, even as high as a messenger of Allah:
“It is not for any human being unto whom Allah had given the scripture and wisdom and the Divine Message, that he should afterwards have said unto mankind, “Be slaves of me instead of Allah. He should rather say, “Be faithful servants of your Rabb by virtue of the code of life that He has given you and which you teach one another and constantly study.”
This verse is the charter of human freedom. The extreme individual or collective desire of man, is his desire for freedom. Slavery is opposite of freedom. A look at the human history shows that although slavery appears in so many forms but basically there are two forces which make other people slaves; the authority to rule and the dignity of priest-hood. Authority to rule appears in a manifest form and its entangle the human body; but the authority of the self-made representatives of God appears in an invisible and imperceptible form and it controls the human mentality. Inspite of his best efforts humanity has not been able to release itself from the grip of these two enslaving powers. Their hold goes on changing itself but the strength of their grip remains unaffected.
The holy Quran brought forth this revolutionary proclamation that no man has got the right to enslave others. In this verse the Quran has clarified the above two enslaving powers, generally called the Temporal and Spiritual. In spiritual powers, the messengers of God are the highest in ranks. The Quran has emphatically declared that even the messengers of God have no right to make others subservient to their personal desires. It is apparent that if even the messengers of God are not given this right, the priests stand no where. The temporal power in past ages was the autocratic rule of the kings and now dictators have come into being. The political thinkers rejected the rule of autocrats and gave the power of law making to the people and this came to be known as Secular Democratic rule. The Quran on the other hand has declared that law makers may be individuals or groups of individuals, it makes no difference. They have no right to make others subservient to their self-made laws. That is all slavery and not freedom. The Quran thus broke the chains of both temporal and spiritual slavery in one stroke.
But on the other hand, if there is no ruling power and no restraint on freedom, it shall result into Anarchy. Thus it is said that although no individual or a group of individuals shall rule others but there shall be the rule of God over them.
On this the priestly class said that God does not rule people directly; we are His representatives and thus subservience to us shall be the subservience to God. The Quran rejected this claim of the priests and declared that no human being can be the representative of God. He has given a code of laws, subservience to this code means the subservience to God and that is the true of freedom. In the subservience of man to man, all the human potentialities are crushed, but in the subservience of the book of God, man is able to actualize his potentialities which is the aim of human life in this world and which makes him fit to pass on to the next evolutionary stage of man in the hereafter.
4) ADL (or Justice)
It means a condition where every individual in a human society gets what is due to him, not only economically but all the fundamental rights that belong to him by virtue of being a man. This provides equal opportunities to individuals for the physical development as well as the development of their personalities.
“Indeed Allah commands justice and proportion.”
It means to give to every body what is due to him.
Adl is a very comprehensive subject. However, let us describe here a few examples of the Quranic Adl:
(a) To do justice in a favorable or a natural atmosphere is meritorious enough, but the real test comes, when you have to do justice to people who hate you or who are your enemies. Thus it is said:
“Oh you who believe! stand out firmly for Allah, as witnesses to fair dealing and let not the hatred of others make you swerve to wrong and depart from justice. Be just. That is nearer to Allah. Allah’s law of requital is well-acquainted with what you do.”
(b) About transactions involving future payment it is said:
“Oh you who believe! when you deal with one in transactions involving future obligations in a fixed period of time, reduce them to writing. Let a scribe write down faithfully as between the parties.”
As regard orphan’s property it is said:
“And come not near the orphan’s property, except to improve it, until he attains the age of full strength: give measure and weight with (full justice).”
Adl while fighting against the enemy:
“Fight in the cause of Allah, those who fight you, but do not transgress limits for Allah loveth not the transgressors.”
It means that war is permissible in self defense. When undertaken it must be pushed with full vigor; not reluctantly but to restore peace freedom for the protection of the Quranic Social Order. Women and children, old and infirm men should not be molested: trees and prop not destroyed.
Another splendid example of Quranic Adl:
“Oh you who believe! when there come to you believing women refugees, examine them, Allah knows best as to their belief; if you ascertain that they are believers, then send them not back to the unbelievers; they are not lawful (wives) for the unbelievers, nor are the (unbelievers) lawful (husbands) for them. But pay the unbelievers what they have spent for them.’
(5) Law of Equality
“Oh you men of understanding! in the law of Equality there is the secret of collective life for you.”
QISAS – Life for life in the case of murder. But Qisas is not a personal act. It is the duty of the Government formed on the basis of divine laws to prescribe and give punishment. The punishment should be proportionate to the crime committed:
(10:27) “But those who have earned evil, will have a reward of like evil.”
But one who apologizes must be pardoned:
(42:40) “The recompense of an is an injury equal there to (in degree) but if a person forgives and makes reconciliation, his reward is due from Allah”.
“Allah command justice and proportion in society.”
The words Adl and Ehsan come together in the holy Quran. In the Quranic Social order Ehsan is the next higher stage after Adl. As described earlier, Adl provides equal opportunities to Individuals. On the other hand, Ehsan means a condition where an individual (Inspite of his best efforts) lags behind, his deficiency is made good by others to restore the disturbed proportion of the society. This is not by way of charity but as a matter of right.
(7) Justice in Courts of Law
- (a) Evidence-
The Quran warns that while giving evidence in a court of law one must not conceal the testimony.
“Conceal not evidence; for whosoever conceals it – his heart is tainted with sin. And Allah knows all that you do.”
The Quran says that the concealment of evidence has a serious effect on your own personality because it taints the every source higher life. Again it is said:
“Oh you who believe! Be you staunch injustice. Give evidence for Allah. even though it goes against yourself or (your) parents. or (your) kindred, whether (the case be) of a rich man or a poor man, for Allah is nearer to both (than you are). So follow not passion lest you lapse or fall away. For lo Allah is ever informed of what you do.”
Pleaders in the court of law, are warned as follows:
“So be not (used) as an advocate by those who betray their trust.”
One who deceives others thinks that he has gained something. In fact he has lost something, on account of the destructive effect on own personality. Actually he has deceived himself. To plead the cause such people is prohibited:
“Fight not the cause of those who betray their ownselves.”
Moses repented after he helped a wrong person and said:
“I shall never be a helper to those who sin.”
(8) Personal Responsibility
Each person is responsible for his own acts. The consequences one’s acts can not be transferred to another:
“Every personality draws the meed of its own acts on none but itself no bearers of burden can bear the burden of another.”
is opposite to justice. It means to put a thing in a place where it should not be’. The Quran not only prohibits wrong acts but also that you should not be wronged:
Wrong not and you shall not be wronged.”
If every Individual on his part avoids wrong acts, the wrong shall be eliminated from the society and all shall be protected against it. The verse also means that you should gain so much strength that no body may attempt to do wrong to you.
“Sanction is given unto those who fight because they have been wronged”.
(10) Enforcement of Law
It is the duty of the Quranic Social order to enforce what is lawful according to divine law and prohibit what is unlawful. In other words Do’s and Dont’s are not a matter of preaching. They are rather to be made the law of the country:
“You are the best community that has been raised up for mankind. You enjoin what is right and forbid what is wrong.”
Islam is a Deen’ which is non-sectarian, non-racial and universal, it is just a submission to the will of Allah. This implies (a) Belief in One God (b) doing right, being an example to others to do right and having the power to see that the right prevails (c) eschewing wrong, being an example to others to eschew wrong and having the power to see that wrong and injustice are defeated. Islam therefore lives not for itself but for mankind.
(11) Lawlessness is prohibited
“Allah loveth not lawlessness.”
(12) Render back the Trust
“Verily Allah commands you to render back your trusts to whom they are due; and when you judge between man and man, that you judge with justice.”
The holy Quran lays great emphasis on rendering back the trusts to whom they are due. The trust may be an ordinary deposit. On the other hand, ‘the reigns of power’ being the biggest and most sacred trust that any human beings can entrust to their fellow human beings, it is imperative that those who are given power must be most trustworthy and most fit persons, those who are capable of deciding the human affairs with full justice and fulfil the responsibilities entrusted to them.
(13) Quranic Economic System-
(a) Subsistence – The serving of man’s physical needs, though not an end in itself, yet it is the grim reality to be faced. Only that person can attend to the higher ideals of life whose mind is not assailed with pangs of hunger. According to the holy Quran. nourishment of individuals is the responsibility of the state:
‘Those who. If We establish them in the land, establish a social order based on divine law and provide nourishment (to the individuals).
(b) Contract between an Islamic State and the believers – In a Quranic social order the state becomes a symbol of divine attributes, guaranteeing the fulfillment of Allah’s promises. Thus the life and property of the believers are at the disposal of the state; and in lieu of it, it is the responsibility of the state to provide peace and plenty to the individuals i.e., a heavenly life on the earth:
“Allah has purchased of the believers, their persons and their wealth, surely for them is a heavenly life (in return).”
This contract between the state and the believers is not merely an abstract idea; it ought to be put in to practice.
(c) Sources of production are for the humanity as a whole
“It is He Who has created all that Is In the earth, for your collective benefit.”
“It is He Who has given you the authority on the earth and provided you (humanity) therein the means of fulfillment of your life.”
(d) All that is surplus to the needs of an individual belong to the society
“They ask thee (0 Rasool?) how much to spend (for the benefit of others) say: what is surplus to your needs.”
This spending on others is not by way of charity but by way of their human right: Those who spend on others shall say:
“We provide you with the means of sustenance only because it is prescribed by the divine law. We do not intend to receive any personal benefit from you, nor any thanks.”
(e) Giving to others, promotes the nourishment and stability of your own personality:
“In the stability of their own personality.”
(f) The Quran disallows an economy based on interest Thus it is said:
“Allah has permitted trade and forbidden usury.”
The Quran condemns and prohibits usury in the strongest terms and differentiates between trade and usury. The Quran only allows a return in lieu of one’s labor. In trade one puts in both capital and labor while in usury only capital is spent. Thus interest on capital is disallowed, while genuine profit in trade is allowed. Every type of profiteering is usury.
Sexual relationship between a man and a woman, other than marriage are strictly forbidden.
“And come not near adultery. Lo, it is an abomination and an evil way.”
Marriage is a contract between two adults by mutual consent only. It is not allowed to compel some one for marriage.
“Oh you who believe! It is not lawful for you to become masters of women forcibly.”
(15) Universal Brotherhood
“Mankind were but one community, then they differed.”
To reorganize universal brotherhood, the holy Quran has prescribed one fundamental code of life for the humanity. In other words one world Government:
“Oh mankind! There has come to you a (common) code of life.”
(16) The survival of the constructive
The welfare work may be confined within parties, countries or nations. According to the holy Quran, that which is beneficial for the entire mankind, survives:
“All that is useful to humanity, remains on the earth.”
As a first step towards achieving this goal, the holy Quran directs mankind to cooperate with one another without distinction of race. color, country or nation; in those affairs which are constructive and based on permanent values: and not in those affairs which are destructive and unlawful:
‘You cooperate with one another in matters of broad mindedness and matters consistent with the divine laws, and do not cooperate in matters of sin and enmity.”
(17) Division of mankind
Distinction between man and man on the basis of caste, color, race and language is forbidden. According to the holy Quran, there is only one criterion for the division of mankind. That division is on the basis of ideology. Those who believe in the permanent values of the Quran belong to one group. Those who do not believe in them belong to another group:
“It is He who has created all of you, some of you are non-believers and some of you are believers.”
(18) Freedom of choice
There is no compulsion for belief in the Quranic Fundamentals. A decision that is not willful is not a decision. Thus non-believers are under no compulsion to join the ranks of believers:
‘There is no compulsion (to follow) the way of life based on Quranic Fundamentals. The right direction is henceforth distinct from error.”
Thus there is a freedom of choice whether one follows this way or that way:
“Say: (It is) the truth from the Rabb of you (all). Then whosoever will, let him believe and whosoever will let him disbelieve.”
In a social order based on Quranic fundamentals, it is not only that the non-believers are allowed to disbelieve but the holy Quran enjoins upon believers to protect the non-believers and their places of worship:
“Had not Allah checked one set of people by means of another, there would surely have been pulled down monasteries, churches, synagogues and mosques in which the name of God is commemorated in abundant measures.”
But it is important to note that when one willingly joins the Quranic social order then it remains no more optional to follow this law or that. Then he is bound to follow the Quranic law.
(19) Defense of the Social Order by raising Arms
Believers are commanded to raise arms for the defense of the Quranic social order:
“Fight in the cause of Allah those who fight you. But do not transgress limits, for Allah loveth not the transgressors.”
It means that believers are prohibited not to fight for personal motives or material gains: nor against those who do not cause hindrance in the way of the Quranic Social order. Limits must not be transgressed and women, children, old and Infirm should not be molested.
- (20) Hijrat
According to the holy Quran it is the duty of a messenger of God, as well as a believer, to strive hard for the establishment of a social order based on the divine law. His first step would be to establish it at the place of his birth. But inspite of his best efforts, if the circumstances around him are not favorable, he leaves this place and migrates to another land where he finds suitable environments. His objective is to establish a social order and not to worship a particular locality. The choice lies between his wealth, property, relatives and place of birth on one hand: and the Quranic Social Order on the other. He chooses the latter and sacrifices the former. This type of migration is termed by the holy Quran as ‘Hijrat’. It is not a migration in search of food or wealth nor is it an escape from facing difficulties; it is rather a more feasible and practicable procedure and a part of his struggle to establish the Quranic Social order. That is why the words and often come together in the holy Quran.
‘Those who believed and those who emigrated and strove and struggled in the path of Allah, they have the hope of being nourished by Allah in His specified pattern.”
The above brief description represents the more prominent and main fundamental principles that one comes across during the study of the holy Quran. These principles were proclaimed to the world. 1400 years ago, by an unlettered orphan (p.b.u.h.) who belonged to a backward, uneducated, unskilled and undisciplined community of idol worshippers of Makkah. He was born at a time when the edifice of the world civilization, that was built through the past 4000 years, was razed to the ground: when despotism was the rule of the day: when superstition dominated the human thought: when every tribe was thirsty of other’s blood: when the way of life prescribed by the messengers of the past throughout the world, which was meant to produce peace and integration, was thrown over board and was replaced by chaos and disruption. In short that was the time when the forces of disintegration prevailed upon the entire human society Inhabiting the globe.
The principles described above are immutable and provide guidance for the development of human personality as well as the smooth running of the human society, as truly today as they did 1400 years ago: and they shall remain as such for all times to come. Anything constructive that we find in the human world today, is in consonance with these principles; and anything positive, constructive and lasting that man is in search of shall be available from this very source. Anything repugnant to this code of life, is bound to be negative, destructive and perishable. The more a nation follows the above-said principles, the more it pulsates with life; the more a nation forsakes them, the more it is full of misery and disappointment. Any unbiased observation and any pragmatic test can prove the truth of this assertion. In the words of Iqbal:
‘Where ever you find a world displaying life and beauty from the soil of which blossom sublime aspirations: it has either already received light from Muhammad (p.b.h.u.). or is still in search of that light.”
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The Evolution of Governmental Organization
The history of mankind is a story of unsuccessful experiments, trials and tribulations. Man produces a concept, gives it a trial and after centuries of dreadful conflicts, bloodshed and wars, comes to the conclusion that the concept he had produced was wrong. Then he brings forth a fresh concept, which is generally opposite to the previous one and thus begins fresh experiments on it. That also proves unsuccessful, after passing through the same unfortunate events. The life of man, political, social and economic, has reached the present stage after passing through a series of such vicious cycles. However, in the following lines,we shall deal only with its political aspect.
Man is a social animal. He cannot live without a society. In a society, struggle between individuals or groups of individuals, for selfish motives, is a must. On the other hand, the resolution of conflicts needs a third party to put things in order. To begin with, the head of a family took this position which further evolved into tribal organizations, the head of a tribe assuming a supreme personality whose decisions became incumbent upon the individuals of the tribe; and thus a primitive form of government originated.
Later on, in the primitive societies, the priests became the dominant power (and this condition still continues in some societies). The priests came to be considered as representatives of deities, with superhuman powers. They became awe-inspiring and nobody could think of disobeying them. This gave origin to theocracy or sovereign power of priests.
At other places, some powerful persons began to suppress the weaker ones by their brutal force and thus gave origin to Autocracy or Dictatorship and Kingship. Later on, the autocrats realized that it was rather difficult to keep people subjugated to their brutal force which they thought must be associated with an aspect of a sense of respect by the people for them. On the other hand, the priests realized that for them in order to maintain a respectful position is getting difficult without a force. Thus the Kings and the priests, by mutual understanding, divided the supremacy of power into two parts. The priests accepted the Kings as the “Shadow of God” and the Kings declared that they have assumed the supreme power, by means of the intermediary of the priests. Thus in practical life the priests became the supreme power in matters related to religion and the Kings a supreme power in the worldly affairs.
It is apparent for what has been described above that in this change in the form of governments, the concept which remained common to all throughout, was the concept of the rule of one individual or one group of individuals over another group of individuals. The history of the rule and exploitation by kings and priests makes a tragic reading in which the humanity became crushed by their brutal force in one way or the other.
Origin of Democracy
When the beastly practice of Autocratic and Theocratic ruling reached its zenith, some western thinkers originated the idea that in order to eliminate the misery of mankind, the system of government should be based on the mutual contract of the people. Thus the theory of “Social Contract” was introduced by Hobbes and Locke. But Rousseau (1712-1778) gave it the practical shape. He said that every man wants freedom, but that is an impossibility. Thus, let every individual person allow his/her “will” to get absorbed into the will of the society. In other words, make the general will of the society the ultimate source of authority. Theoretically, it appeared to be a good idea but the difficulty arose in putting the general will of the people into practice. It was not possible to determine the will of every individual in a society. It was thus decided to base the form of government on the representatives of the people; and if opinions differ, the decision of the majority be accepted. Thus democracy came to be based on the following suppositions –
1) In a democratic government, there remains no distinction between a ruler and the ruled
and the people form their own government.
2) The will of the people can be determined through their representatives.
3) In order to find out whether a certain decision is right or wrong, the standard laid down is the opinion of the majority of representatives.
4) The minority is bound to accept the decision of the majority and the people as a whole are bound to obey them.
Thus Democracy came to be considered as the Government of the people, by the people and for the people. It developed chiefly in the West but the people of Asia and Africa who had suffered tremendously on account of their being exploited by the Autocrats and the Theocrats with the resultant misery and degradation followed them and took democracy to be a gift from Heaven and a panacea for their ailments.
The basic concept, in which democracy rests, namely that nobody has the right to rule another, is ideal but, the point is whether it has achieved or is capable of achieving the aim it has laid down before itself. The West (west of Pakistan) has been the cradle of democracy. Let us see what the thinkers of the West have got to say about it.
Professor Alfred Cubban of London University says in his book “The Crisis of Civilization”:
“Considering politics in terms of actual facts and not abstract theories, it must be acknowledged that the identification of ruler and the ruled, assumed in the theory of the sovereignty of people, is a practical impossibility. The government is one set of people and the governed another. Once society has developed beyond the smallest and the most primitive communities, they never have been and never can be the same. The pretence that they are, can only lead to the worst excesses of power in the state. (pg.68)
Another thinker Rene Guenon says in his book “The crisis of the modern world”:
‘If the world democracy is defined as the government of the people by themselves, it expresses an absolute impossibility and cannot even have a de-facto existence in our time any more than in any other. It is contradictory to say that the same persons can be, at the same time, rulers and ruled, because to use the Aristotelian phraseology the same being cannot be ‘in act’ and ‘in potency’ at the same time and in the same circle of relations. The relationship of the ruler and the ruled necessitates the joint presence of two terms; there could be no ruled if there were not also rulers, if though those may be illegitimate and have no other title to power than their own pretensions; but the great ability of those who are in control in the modern world lies in making the people believe that they are governing themselves, and the people are the more inclined to believe this as they are flattered by it and as they are in any case, incapable of sufficient reflection to see it’s impossibility. It was to create this illusion that ‘universal suffrage’ was invented. The laws is supposed to be made by the opinion of the majority but what is overlooked is that this opinion is something that can very easily be guided or modified; it is always possible by means of suitable suggestions to arouse in it currents moving in this or that directions as desired.”
Arnold J. Toynbee writes in his book, “The Present Day Experiment in Western civilization 1962” – Democratic parliamentary government is a less efficient and therefore a most wasteful regime than oligarchic parliamentary government and even a parliamentary oligarchy is inefficient and more extravagant by comparison with a well managed authoritarian regime.” Pg.35.
Defects of Democracy in practice
Ideals of democracy are difficult to be realized in practical life. Democracy demands from the people, a high degree of civic capacity which involves intelligence, self control and devotion to a common cause, and capacity to subordinate to it private interests and desires.
It relies on the spirit of give and take. It also demands time to share in common activities, to study the issues involved. The common man is indolent in politics. He is neither politically intelligent, nor sufficiently educated. He does not posses the capacity to understand political problems and is incapable of intelligent action. Democracy is suited to a state in which the people who want to exercise power, are capable of sinking differences and cooperating for the general good, and have acquired knowledge and judgment enough to elect suitable representatives and to judge as to the propriety of general lines of policy.
Leeky, accordingly characterized democracy as the government of the poorest, the most ignorant, the most incapable who are necessarily the most numerous. The average citizen has not the time, inclination and ability to inform himself on the affairs of the state.
Lord Bryce, a fervent exponent of democracy points to the following defects, based on his personal observations of the major democracies in the world-
- 1) The power of money to pervert administration or legislation.
- 2) Tendency to make politics a gainful profession.
- 3) Extravagance in administration.
- 4) The abuse of the doctrine of equality and failure to appreciate the value of administrative skill.
- 5) The undue power of party organization.
- 6) The tendency of legislature and political officials to play for votes in the passing of laws and in tolerating breeches of order.
Our own experience of Democracy in Pakistan
The conclusion one draws from the writings of the above said thinkers and others, is that democratic parliamentary government is a deception and a most wasteful regime in which the achievement of a small group people is to make fools of a larger group of people in a society; because opinion is something that can easily be guided or modified.
We, in Pakistan, can easily verify this fact from our own experience in this country.
The experiment of a democratic parliamentary form of government in Pakistan is a dreadful experience, since this country came into being. It’s failure is due to two different causes – 1) The deception and wastefulness lies in the very nature of this regime, as said by the thinkers in the West. 2) The incompatibility of the democratic parliamentary form of government with an Islamic government.
Every election in Pakistan brings forward a good number of imbeciles, most of them having poor academic backgrounds. Their opinion can easily be purchased by anybody who possesses sufficient money. They get elected because of their wealth, with which they buy votes and after being elected they get this wealth spent by them, multiplied manifold, by unfair means. They can even be bribed to change parties and neither the buyers nor the bought feel ashamed of it. The term Horse-trading is prevalent for this disgraceful act of these people. They are so much absorbed in greed and selfishness that they have neither time, nor capacity, to perform the function of law-making ( )
‘A human idea cannot arise from the brains of two hundred donkeys’.
A majority of them have no political background and some of them are mere oratorical prostitutes who stir human sentiments not by display of body contours but by display of rosy words. Oratory is a precious human virtue but it becomes a sinful act when used for selfish ends. In a country like Pakistan, politics is an easily accessible vocation. A shrewd politician maneuvers to hold a firm grip on the mental outlook of the products of his oratory. The following are the prerequisites of his success:
He is capable of constantly arousing the passions of his followers without allowing them to use their own intellect. He can create a strong impression amongst them that his thinking is mature and far superior to anybody else’s. He can act as diplomat rather than a man of principles. He is well versed in the at of agitation and law breaking. He knows how to bring abasement to his opponents, no matter how many lies he has got to invent. He can feign strong resistance without accepting the truth offered by his opponents. He is capable of capable of depicting the darkest picture of the present regime and the brightest picture of the future which he assures to bring about. He is competent to kindle the light of impossible hopes in the minds of his followers and in order to keep this trick going, he never states anything definite, but presents his programs in the guise of attractive reforms. At every step, he can firmly assure his followers that they are on the threshold of success. He can keep his followers fully confident that it is only their party, which is on the right path, all others are vague and unsound. He can keep them constantly on the move, never giving them respite to pause and think.
These leaders try to keep their followers away from the divine fundamental principles. As a matter of fact, they themselves are not aware of them. They themselves assume the role of a final authority in making decisions. Some of them succeed in creating such an awe amongst their followers that they are always spellbound and consider all that is said by their leader as immutable. But the hold of political leaders on the imagination of their followers is often not as firm and lasting as those of religious leaders. This is another category which has appeared on the scene of western democracy in Pakistan. As a matter of fact, they are either idiots, or hypocrites. If they are not able to visualize the clear Quranic guidance that the sovereignty in an Islamic State is that of the Book of Allah, they are idiots; on the other hand, if despite their belief in the guidance of the Quran, they still stick to a form of government in which sovereignty is that of the people, they are hypocrites. The billionaires use their finances and the Mullahs use their glib tongue; and the poor masses follow these exploiters like a herd of sheep, being impressed by their false proclamations and petty monetary gains during the election campaigns, only to lead a life of misery and degradation later on.
Inspite of all the drawbacks of a democratic parliamentary form of government, the Western people stick to it because they have got no other alternative. Those people are skeptical of divine truths. But in a country like Pakistan, whose origin and stay is welded with the belief in the divine truths, Western democracy is and shall always remain a source of disorder.
Western Democracy and Quranocracy are the two Incompatibilities
The basic difference lies in the issue of Sovereignty.
In a democratic parliamentary form of government, the sovereignty lies, as they say, in the people but in an Islamic State the sovereignty lies in the injunctions, laws and the permanent values which are contained in the Quran for the guidance of mankind and the safety and protection of which Allah has taken upon himself –
(15:9) “We have without doubt sent down the message and We will assuredly guard it (against corruption).”
Unless the question of sovereignty is taken up seriously, the establishment of an Islamic Social Order shall always remain a dream.
As stated earlier, the government of an Islamic State is only a machinery to put into practice the Quranic laws, injunctions and permanent values. In order to escape from this responsibility, our Pakistani lawmakers have improvised the term “Delegation of Allah’s powers” which forms a part of the Pakistani constitution. This concept of delegation of Allah’s powers is absolutely false. It too it’s origin amongst the Christians and gave birth to Theocracy. The Christian kings modified this concept to give it the form of ‘divine rights of the kings’. The same idea came into vogue amongst the Muslims after Caliphate changed into Kingship and Muslim Kings began to call themselves – ()
“Shadow of God on the earth”. From then onwards, the Muslim Kings became sovereign in the worldly affairs and the Muslim priests in the religious affairs; and the ‘Deen’ became split up into ‘church and state’.
As said earlier, the concept of delegation of sovereignty of Allah is absolutely false from the Quranic point of view. Delegation of power from one person to another means that the later gains absolute control of power for a certain period and that the exercise of this power by the former becomes suspended in the meantime. Secondly, the occasion for the delegation of power by certain authority arises when that authority itself is not present at the place where the power is to be exercised. But Allah is omnipresent. The question of His being not present, at any time or anywhere, does not arise. Allah does not delegate His Sovereignty to anyone, not even to His own messengers who themselves are subservient to His laws.
Now let us see the argument produced by mullah in support of this false concept of delegation of Allah’s sovereignty. They consider man as () and erroneously translate it as vicegerent of Allah which means that he exercises delegated powers of Allah. As a matter of fact, there is not a single instance in the Holy Quran where man is described as () successor of Allah. He is rather described as ( )
When Allah addressed the Mal’aika and said:
2:30 “I will create a ‘khalifa’ on the earth”.
It pointed towards the creation of a successor to the preceding generations that lived on the earth before mankind.
Moreover, in order to clarify the point that man is not successor of Allah, we shall have to clarify the meaning of the word Khalifa. There are three basic concepts in the meaning of the words with root ()
- (a) to succeed (b) to follow and (c) to undergo change. The Holy Quran is self-explanatory. It says:
25:62 “And it is He who made the night and the day () to follow each other”.
Again it is said :
(2:164) “Day and night coming one after the other”.
‘B’ can become Khalifa of ‘A’ only in his absence. ‘A’ may be dead or alive but ‘B’ cannot take his place as Khalifa in his presence. The following verses of the Quran support it:
Before Moses went up on the mount for communication with Allah, he said to his brother Aaron:
(7:142) “You shall succeed me amongst my people (in my absence)”.
And yet another place it is said:
(10:14) “Then We made you successors in land after them, to see how you would behave”.
Hud said to his people:
11:57 “(if you turn away from the Divine Guidance) my Lord will make another people to succeed you”.
About the people of ‘Aad it is said:
(7:69) “In that He made you successors after the people of Noah”.
The Holy Quran has, thus, amply clarified that a Khalifa is a successor in the absence of or on the death of his predecessor. Hence the question of somebody being
() does not arise.
The concept of () is the invention of individuals with vested interests who wanted to exploit people in the garb of Allah’s vicegerency. After the death of Rasool, when somebody used the word () for Hadrat Abu Bakr Siddique (first caliph), he repudiated it by saying, “I am () (successor to the Rasool), not () (successor to Allah).
Hence the words () as they occur in the Holy Quran, mean to hold reins of power with the purpose of putting into practice the Divine Laws in human affairs. Allah is the lawmaker. His laws are immutable and cannot be changed.
6:34 “Nobody can change the laws of Allah”
Not even the messenger of Allah:
3:128 “(‘O messenger of Allah!) You are not given the authority to change the laws of Allah”.
Allah is () i.e., The Only Sovereign. There is no sovereign except Allah. He is the only authority to whose laws subservience of man is due. As said earlier, in an Islamic State the central command of believers is an instrument to enforce the Divine Laws and it’s jurisdiction in Law making is confined within specific limits: it does not hold absolute rights of Law making. The law making in a Quranic society is a blend of Permanence and Change. The fundamental principles given by the Quran are Permanent and Immutable. The legislature of an Islamic State is not authorized to exceed the limits laid down by these fundamentals; yet it can make by-laws or change the existing by-laws, according to the needs of the changing times, within the boundary line laid down by the Quranic fundamentals, by means of () ‘Consultation’ . Even the machinery for implementation of () Shura is changeable with the change of time and circumstances, but shura itself is a permanent injunction. Thus the concept of delegation of Allah’s sovereignty or the delegation of power of law making by Allah to the legislature of an Islamic State is an erroneous one. The acceptance of this false concept of delegation of power means that a legislature can make any law according to it’s whims and wishes and that is exactly what has been happening in Pakistan. This concept is not only erroneous but also a source of grave mischief.
Allah is () ‘al’-‘IL’AHA’ which means the only Sovereign. He alone possesses absolute Power and it is imperative for human beings to be subservient to His Laws. The Quran says:
16:51 “Allah has said: take not for subservience two gods (ILAHAIN). For He is just one God”.
The delegation of Allah’s Powers means to make more than one Sovereign.
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