Tag Archives: Dr. Sayed Abdul Wadud

Phenomena of Nature: Physical & Chemical Basis of the Universe – Dr. Sayed Abdul Wadud

The distribution of tasks in the universe. (51:4)

The planning and readjustment of the contents of the universe. (79:5)

All objects in nature consist of chemicals. Even the living objects originated from chemicals. There are 92 different known elements which form the ‘building bricks’ of the universe. These ‘bricks’ can be transformed one into another. Mendeleev (1834-1907), a Russian scientist, discovered the Periodic law which is a statement of the fact that “properties of chemical elements are periodic functions of their atomic weights”. That is, when they are arranged in order of  their   atomic   numbers,   elements   having   similar   chemical   and physical properties occur at regular intervals. Table of chemical substances illustrating the Periodic law is known as the Mendeleev Table (F-‘-

The elements are arranged in this Table from No. 1 to No. 92, in order of their atomic weights. The elements in turn consist of tiny particles called atoms. An atom is the smallest complete unit of an element. For example, a carbon atom is the basic unit of the element carbon. Each element is given a chemical symbol. For example, the symbol of carbon is C and that of oxygen is 0. Under certain degrees of temperature, pressure and concentration, all atoms except a few are liable to attach to and remain linked to certain other atoms. Such combinations of two or more atoms are called compounds. The binding forces which keep the atoms in a compound linked together are called Chemical Bonds. Each compound has a particular chemical name and a particular formula, which indicate what kinds and what numbers of atoms are present in that particular compound. For example, carbon dixoide is technically the compound of carbon and oxygen and is represented as CO2 i.e., one atom of carbon is linked with two atoms of oxygen.

How are the chemical bonds between atoms produced? The atoms of all elements are constructed out of components collectively known as fundamental elementary particles which are of 3 types: Protons, Neutrons and Electrons. Protons and Neutrons are situated in the centre of an atom and are collectively known as Atomic Nucleus. Electrons revolve round the nucleus. (Fig. 11A). A Proton has a Mass (Weight) which is the same for all protons and is given the arbitrary unit Value 1. Neutron is the same as the Proton with no charge and thus its Mass is also 1. Mass of an Electron is 1/1800 and thus it is negligible. So the total mass of a whole atom is concentrated in its nucleus.

The mass of an atomic nucleus, i.e., the number of protons and neutrons present determine the Atomic Weight. For example, the simplest type of atom is that of Hydrogen. Its nucleus consists of a single proton and there is a single electron on the outside; neutron is absent. Since the nucleus of hydrogen has a mass of 1, its atomic weight is said to be 1. Next higher element is Helium. Its atomic weight is four and its nucleus contains 2 protons and 2 neutrons. Thus the atomic weights from element No. 1, i.e.. Hydrogen to element No. 92, i.e., Uranium, go on rising stop by step. Uranium is the heaviest of all elements. Its atomic weight is 238. Under certain conditions elements are interconvertible.

In addition to their mass, the elementary particles, of an atom also have certain electrical properties. Neutrons, as the name indicates, are electrically neutral. Protons are electrically positive, i.e., each proton carries one unit of positive electric charge. Electrons are electro-negative, each unit carrying one unit of negative charge. In each normal atom the number of protons is exactly equal to the number of Electrons. For example, the Oxygen atom has got eight protons positively charged and eight electrons negatively charged. Similarly in one atom of Sodium there are 11 positively charged protons and 11 negatively charged electrons. It means that the positive and negative charges in an atom are equal and thus an atom as a whole is electrically neutral.

Number of Electrons (or Protons) in an atom defines its Atomic Number. Thus hydrogen has Atomic No. 1, uranium has Atomic No. 92.

The electrons of an atom move around the nucleus at a speed of the order of 100,000 miles per second. An atom is thus like a miniature solar system. The nucleus is comparable to the central sun and electrons are comparable to the planets. Just as gravitational forces keep the planets in orbits around the sun, so also do forces of electric attraction keep the negatively charged electrons in atomic orbits around the positively charged nucleus. Moreover, just as the planetary orbits are situated at specific distances from the sun, so also are the electrons’ orbits located at specific distances from the atomic nucleus. The paths of the electrons at these distances may be said to mark out specific shells one outside the other known as Quantum Shells. Each shell can hold only a fixed maximum number of electrons. The first shell closest to the atomic nucleus can hold a maximum of 2 electrons the second shell a maximum of 8 electrons. Known maximums also characterise all other shells. In the case of a Hydrogen atom the single electron normally orbits in the first shell. As this shell could hold two electrons, Hydrogen is said to have an ‘incomplete’ or ‘open’ shell. By contrast an atom of Helium possesses two electrons both orbiting the first shell. In this instance the shell holds the maximum possible number of electrons and it is said to be ‘complete’ or ‘closed’. (Fig. 11B). In an atom of Oxygen 8 orbital electrons are present. Two of these fill the first shell and the remaining six occupy the second. Since the second shell could hold 8 electrons, this shell of Oxygen is open. In atoms generally electrons fill the orbital shells from the innermost outwards. Thus de­pending on the particular number of electrons present in a given atom, the outermost shell is either complete or incomplete. An atom is electronically and chemically stable only when all of its electron quantum shells are complete. A Helium atom possessing just the two electrons necessary to complete the first shell, is electronically entirely stable. It is also quite inert chemically, that is, it is unable to react with other atoms. Similar is the case with elements like Neon, Argon, Krypton, Xenon and Radon called inactive or inert gases. In the atoms of all other elements the outermost shells are incomplete and such atoms are electronically unstable. If appropriate kind and appropriate number of such atoms come into mutual contact, their incomplete outer shells may make them undergo a chemical reaction. The result of such a reaction is the formation of chemical bonds between the atoms, i.e., a chemical compound is produced. Thus the chemical properties of atoms are determined by their outermost quantum shells.

Ions. Every atom has a tendency to complete its outer shell and so to become electronically stable and this is the underlying cause for chemical interactions among atoms.

Now let us see how an originally incomplete shell becomes complete. (Fig. 11C). Consider an atom of Chlorine. Of the 17 orbital electrons, 2 form the first complete shell, 8 a second complete shell and remaining seven an incomplete third shell. Thus a Chlorine atom can satisfy its strong tendency for completing its shells by gaining one more electron in its outer shell. Consider now an atom of Sodium. Of the 11 electrons present in this atom, 2 form a first complete shell, 8 a second complete shell and the remaining one lies in a highly incomplete third shell. If this atom were to lose its single electron in the third shell, practically its second shell would then become the outermost shell. Thus the atom would become complete and stable.

In other words Chlorine is unstable because it has one electron short and Sodium is unstable because it has one electron surplus, in their outermost shells respectively. In view of this both atoms could become stable simultaneously, if a single atom is transferred from one atom to the other. Actually this can happen under certain appropriate conditions, and such a reaction is called an Electron-Transfer reaction.

Such a reaction may take place between more than two atoms; and the electrons transferred may be more than one. In electron transfer among two or more atoms, those atoms which loss electrons are called Electron Donors and those which gain them are called Electron Acceptors. Now why should an atom, say for instance, of Sodium always be a donor and that of Chlorine an acceptor. This is because 7 negatively charged electrons of Chlorine and their oppositely charged nucleus are attracted towards each other with a much stronger force than the one between a single negatively charged electron of Sodium and its nucleus. Thus it is exceedingly difficult to dislodge as many as seven electrons in one batch. Hence Chlorine will always act as an acceptor. Thus with two suitable atoms close to each other, the one containing a lesser number of electrons in the outer shell will become an electron donor and the one containing a larger number will become an electron acceptor. We may note that electron donors are commonly known as Metals and electron acceptors as Non-Metals.

As electrons are negatively charged, their transfer from one atom to another results in important electrical changes. Let us again take for example the transfer reaction between Sodium and Chlorine atoms. An atom of Sodium is electrically neutral because it contains eleven positively charged protons and eleven negatively charged electrons. After one electron is transferred from Sodium to Chlorine atom, the Sodium atom becomes positively charged. Similarly the Chlorine atom which was neutral before transfer took place, became negatively charged after it received an additional electron from Sodium. Atoms or groups of atoms carrying electric charges are called Ions. Substances with opposite electrical charges are attached to each other through electrostatic force. Thus the oppositely charged ions are actually bound together to form Ionic-Compounds.

The number of bonds that an ion forms with others, indicates the valence of the ions. Thus Sodium is said to have a positive valence of 1. Similarly Carbon ion has a positive valence of 4. This applies only to the number of bonds actually formed. Whole atoms have valence of Zero. They have potential valences which become actual through gain or loss of electrons.

Molecules. An atom with an incomplete outer shell may satisfy its tendency to become stable in a different way. An acceptor may not have a suitable donor nearby for interac­tion but it may have other atoms of its own kind available. In such an event an atom say of Chlorine shall complete its outer shell by reacting with another Chlorine atom (Fig. 11D). When in close contact, each one of the two Chlorine atoms tries to pull strongly an additional electron from the other. But in this mutual pull neither of the two atoms is able to detach an electron from the other. This is so because the force of attraction between the nucleus and electrons of one atom is equal to the force of attraction between the nucleus and the electrons of the other atom. Thus a mutual pull continues, each atom holding its own electrons, as well as trying to pull an additional electron from the other. This results in the two atoms holding each other together and at the same time sharing one pair of electrons. In this way each atom completes its outer shell by keeping under its influence 7 electrons in its own outer shell and one electron in the outer shell of the other atom. Each atom behaves as if it actually possessed 8 electrons in its outer shell. More than one pair of atoms may take part in this sharing process. Atoms such as Carbon, Oxygen and Nitrogen always share electrons, as contrary to such atoms as Sodium and Magnesium which always transfer electrons. The compounds formed as the result of electron-sharing are called Molecules and the reactions producing them are called Molecular reactions.

Just after the origin of the earth, probably free atoms were present all over. Later on they formed compounds. With certain exceptions free atoms are not to be found now. They are in the form of ionic and molecular compounds.


The energy of a body is its capacity for doing Work. It is measured by the amount of Work which a body under a given condition can perform.

Forms of energy. Since mechanical energy, heat, light, sound and electricity are capable of doing work under suitable conditions, they are considered as different forms of energy.

Kinds of energy. The energy is of two kinds. (1) The Kinetic energy and (2) the Potential energy.

Kinetic energy. The kinetic energy of a body is the energy which it possesses on account of its motion. Examples: A moving railway engine, a bullet fired from a rifle, a stone falling from a height are examples of bodies, which possess kinetic energy.

Potential energy. The potential energy of a body is the energy which it possesses on account of its position or some special situation. It is equal to the amount of work, which the body can perform in coming from its given position or condition to some standard position or condition, called Zero position. Examples: Water stored in elevated reservoir, ice lying on the top of the mountain, brick lying on the roof of the house are examples of bodies that possess potential energy on account of their relatively high position. On the other hand, the runner of a watch, a compressed spring and a bow with its string stretched are examples of bodies that possess potential energy on account of some special condition.

Every compound has a varying degree of energy content, depending on the atoms of which it is composed of and on its pattern of structure. As already noted the atoms in a compound are bound together by mutual electrical pull. These binding forces which hold the atoms together represent Chemical energy or Bond energy. The greater the force of attraction between two atoms or ions, the greater is bond energy or capacity to do work. A chemical bond is not a permanent structure. It may be broken up by an external force pushing apart the component atoms or ions. The amount of work required to break such a chemical bond is also called Bond Energy Once the two atoms or ions get disunited, they are free to unite again with each other or with some other suitable ions.

To start a certain chemical reaction, activating energy is required from an external source. How does this energy act? Take, for instance, heat which is the product of motion. As already described in Chapter HI, all atoms, ions and molecules continuously vibrate at random, making back and forth movements. These movements are felt in the form of heat and measured as temperature. The greater the temperature the more violent the motions; they decrease with the fall of temperature until stop at 273°C. Thus the temperature of a certain substance is proportional to the amount of thermal agitation in its chemical units. With the application of heat from an external source, the thermal agitation increases, and the chemical units collide against each other with a greater frequency. The more they collide, the greater is the possibility of reaction taking place between them. But this happens only up to a certain limit. If the application of heat exceeds that limit, so that the atoms and ions in the compounds become so much agitated that the force of the heat motion becomes more than the force which binds them together, then the bonds that already exists begin to break. Any type of energy other than heat, such as ultraviolet rays, will produce the same two effects i.e., increasing the possibility of bond-making up to a certain limit and the breaking up of existing bonds beyond that limit.

Once a chemical reaction is started, energy is also required to maintain that reaction. The maintenance energy comes from two different sources, depending on the potential bond energy that different compounds possess-(l) From the environments, (2) From the reaction itself. As is more frequently the case, the starting compounds entering a reaction have a total bond energy less than the total bond energy of the resulting compounds. In such an event there is an energy deficit in the reactants which can only be made up from an external source. Such reactions which require energy from an external source are called Endothermic.

On the other hand if the total bond-energy of the starting compounds is greater than the total bond-energy of the resulting compounds, the reaction is self-sustaining i.e., the energy in the starting compounds not only maintains reaction but is also released to the environments. Such reactions are called Exothermic. The burning of petrol is an example. Once it is ignited, the reaction goes on automatically and releases energy which can be used for doing some other work e.g., running a motor. In this case the total potential bond energy of the petrol is greater than the total bond-energy of the end products, which are gases.

Types of reactions between compounds. The chemical properties of a compound depend on the following:-

(1)    Arrangement of the component atoms. Two molecules may contain the same set of atoms, but if these are arranged differently the molecules  will have different properties. For example—

This difference in the binding properties of otherwise similar molecules is particularly significant in the chemistry of living matter. As we shall see later, how physically and biologically different substances come into existence, simply by change in the arrangement pattern of atoms in a given molecule.

(2) Number and type of the component atoms. The number of atoms being the same, a molecule composed of atoms of high atomic weight will obviously be heavier than a molecule composed of atoms of low atomic weight. In the living world the molecules are mostly composed of oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and carbon, which are lighter elements. But the molecular weights of organic molecules are often exceedingly high. This is because an organic molecule is composed of hundreds and thousands of atoms. Here it is the large number and not the atomic weight which makes the organic molecule heavy.

As already noted, the compounds are not permanent structures. If subjected to the impact of appropriate amounts of external energy, they may undergo chemical reactions and become converted into different compounds. In the course of such a reaction, changes occur in the numbers, types or the arrangement of atoms of the participating compounds. Depending on the manner in which the structure of compounds become changed, four general categories of reactions may be distinguished:-

(1) Two or more compounds may add together and form a single larger compound. This is known as Synthesis reaction. For example,

NH3                   H2O                    NH40H

Ammonia    +    Water   =            Ammonium Hydro-Oxide

(2) A given compound may break up into two or more smaller ones. This is known as Decomposition reaction, the reverse of Synthesis. For example,

NH40H                                     NH3            H2O

(Ammonium Hydro-Oxide) = (Ammonia)   +   (Water)

(3) One or more of the atoms or ions of one compound may change places with one or more of the atoms or ions of another compound. This is known as Exchange reaction. For example,

+ —                       + —                        + –       + —

HCl                      NaOH                     HOH      NaCI

(Hydrochloric Acid) + (Sodium Hydroxide) = (Water) + (Sodium Chloride)

(4)Lastly, the numbers and types of atoms in a compound may remain the same but the bonding pattern of the atoms changes. This is called a Rearrangement reaction. For example,

Note that in all the four types of reactions the total numbers and types of atoms to the left of the equation are exactly equal to the totals on the right In the reaction as a whole, atoms are neither gained nor lost.

Catalysis. Organic compounds are very complex. Reactions between them require very high activation energy. Thus, theoretically, living processes require very hot environments. But it is a common experience that organic matter is liable to be destroyed when exposed to excessive heat. Then how is it possible for such complex processes to be carried out at a low temperature in which the living matter normally exists. This happens by means of Catalysis. The reactions in living matter are enormously accelerated by catalysts which serve as a supplement to thermal agitation. Various types of catalysts are also present in the non-living world. Special catalysts in the living world which are proteins and are thus very highly complex compounds are known as Enzymes. An enzyme combines with the reacting compounds only temporarily and thus brings them dose to each other. The reacting compounds which fit into the enzyme surface are called Substrates. Reaction between Substrates no more depends on chance collision but it becomes a certainty. Enzymes  have   definite   molecular surfaces and the configuration of these surfaces   differ,   as  the   internal structure of the respective proteins of which they are made up of, differs. Thus the nature of surface serves as a key to enzyme reaction. This is evident from (Fig.l2A.) The surfaces of molecules ‘a’ and ‘b’ fit into the surface of enzyme like lock and key. Reaction between ‘a’ and ‘b’ is thus no more a chance but a certainty. This indicates that every enzyme selects its own Substrates. Spatial   configuration   of  different enzymes differs and this accounts for the phenomena of enzyme specificity. It means that a particular enzyme catalyses only a particular reaction. In (Fig.l2B) Reactants ‘a’ and b fit partially into   the surface of the enzyme but Reactant ‘c’ does not. Hence the enzyme may speed up reactions involving ‘a’ and ‘b’, but not those involving ‘c’. When the reaction between two subtrates is over, the enzyme    molecule ultimately reappears unchanged, free to combine with a new set of substrates. The enzyme thus seves only as a medium and is not itself affected by such reaction.

Every chemical reaction has three basic characteristics. It takes place at a certain speed, it proceeds in a certain direction, and it has a certain duration.

Speed of Reaction. In addition to surrounding temperature and catalysts, the speed of reaction is also affected by the concentration of the reacting compounds present, the greater is their number, the greater the speed. The reaction is thus proportional to the concentration of the participating molecules. This is known as the law of Mass Action.

Direction and Duration of Reaction. This concentration of molecules does no affect speed only, it also affects the direction and duration of reaction.

For example:-1Glycerine + 3 Fatty-Acids = 1 Fat + 3 Water.

If the concentration of glycerine and fatty acid on the left of this equation is more than the concentration of fat and water on the right, the reaction will proceed to the right. On the other hand if the concentration is more on the right i.e., fat and water side, then the reaction will proceed to the left. The reaction shall continue, till a balance in concentration is achieved on either side.

The reaction is affected in two other ways. Firstly if we go on adding glycerine and fatty acid on the left, the reaction shall go on proceeding to the right. Secondly, if we go on removing the fat formed on the right side, the reaction shall again go on proceeding to the right. The latter shall happen rather more particulatiy in those reactions where the products of reaction are either gas or a precipitate.

The forces responsible for the distribution of tasks in nature


The term radiation is used in two senses. Firstly it is the process by which energy is propagated in space in the form of rays. Secondly the rays so propagated are also called Radiations.

Light Rays, Heat Rays, Gamma Rays are some examples of radiations.

Propagation of Radiant energy. Light and other such radiations are considered the result of rapidly alternating displacement current in the medium which gives rise to the magnetic effect. The two fields, namely the electric field and the magnetic, so produced, are inseparable, the one varying proportionately with the other. The variations of one field which give rise to the other, urge each other forward with a finite velocity, which is the velocity of light.

With regard to the origin of Electro-magnetic waves it may be stated that the atoms and molecules of matter contain electric charges, the vibrations of which send out electro-magnetic radiations. These radiations cover a very wide range of frequencies of wave lengths, depending on the quickness of alternation of the displacement currents. As a result we get the following chart of the different types of Electro-magnetic waves:-

Form the above chart it is dear that although these Electromagnetic radiations go by different names, in different regions, they are essentially of the same nature.

The shortest waves are the Cosmic Rays whose origin and nature are not fully known yet.

The next short waves are Gamma Rays which are emitted by the spontaneous disintegration of radioactive atoms.

Next come the X-Rays which are produced by an atomic process when fast moving electrons strike material objects.

The Ultraviolet Rays arise when atoms or molecules are subjected to energetic excitation bombardment with fast moving electrons.

The visible region which affects the human eye (Light Rays) occupies a very small portion of the whole electromagnetic chart. The waves of this region are produced by the vibrations of electric charges within both atoms and molecules.

The longer Infrared Rays which are produced by molecular agitation can be detected by their heating effect.

Finally we get the Wireless Rays which are produced by oscillatory electric circuits.

All these different types of radiations are propagated with the same velocity through space and all of them consist of alternating electric and magnetic fields in mutually perpendicular directions.


There are certain heavy metals like uranium, thorium and radium which give out some kinds of radiations for all time continuously and spontaneously and thereby they are converted into a series of elements of lower atomic number. These elements and their salts which too exhibit this property are known as Radioactive Substances and the phenomena of giving out radiations by them is called Radio-activity. Three types of radiations are given out by radio-active substances:-

  1. Alpha Rays
  2. Beta Rays
  3. Gamma Rays

Alpha Rays. They comprise fast moving positively charged particles of mass, four times heavier than that of hydrogen nucleus. They are known to be nuclei of helium.

Beta Rays. They consist of a stream of electrons, moving with a very high velocity. As such they resemble the cathode rays in nature.

Gamma Rays. They are similar in nature to X-Rays and are. therefore, electro-magnetic waves in ether. Their wave-length is even shorter than X-Rays. They travel with the speed of light and have intense penetrating power. These rays carry neither mass nor charge. They are produced by the sudden stoppage of Beta-Rays, just as the X-Rays are produced by the sudden stoppage of Cathode Rays.


According to our common concept, matter and energy belong to two different categories and scientists too regarded them till recently as quite separate from each other. Matter in its own sphere was considered to be such that it could neither be created nor destroyed, by any physical or chemical means. This was the famous law of Conservation of Matter, upon which the whole science of chemistry was based. Energy in its own sphere was also considered to be such, that it could neither be created nor destroyed but only changed in form. In the year 1905, Einstein, the mastermind of modern physics, put forward the revolutionary idea that matter and energy are two aspects of the same stuff and that when matter is destroyed, energy is created in enormous quantity. He not only stated this fact but by his mathematical ingenuity discovered the famous equation E = MC2, which determines the relation between the matter destroyed and the energy created. (M-Mass of matter E-Energy in Ergs: and C-Velocity of light).

How large is the energy produced by the destruction of small mass of matter can be judged from the following example:-

If the consumption of electric energy in a house is 25 units per month, therein the energy produced by the destruction of Igm. of mass shall be sufficient to supply electricity to this house for 1,000,000 months, i.e., for more then 80,000 years. The enormous energy thus created by the destruction of a small mass of matter in the nuclei of atoms of some suitable substance is known as Nuclear Energy or Atomic Energy.

Fission and Fusion. The actual destruction of a small mass of matter and the consequent release of nuclear energy is caused by one of the two processes, the fission and the fusion.

Fission. In fission the nucleus of any suitable atom is split up into two parts by the bombardment of a proton or a neutron. For example, when nucleus of uranium 235 is bombarded with a neutron”‘, it undergoes fission and is split up into two parts, one of which is the nucleus of barium and the other is the nucleus of krypton while 3 neutrons are given off. Counting the exact atomic weights of the elements, including fractions, the total final mass produced is less than the total initial mass. The mass thus destroyed in the reaction is converted into energy.

Nuclear Fusion. The second process of the release of nuclear energy is by fusion; in which two or more nuclei of suitable substances are fused together to form a new nucleus, thereby destroying a certain amount of matter and converting it into energy. For example when two deuterium nuclei (a heavy Hydrogen Nudeus-1H2 ) are fused together, they form an atom of helium nucleus 2He4. In this case also the total final mass is found to be less than the total initial mass.

The solar radiations that supply energy for the maintenance of life on the earth, are produced by nuclear reactions inside the sun. The hydrogen is converted into helium. The actual processes are complex but the basic fact is that during fusion of the hydrogen atom and their conversion into helium, the total final mass produced is less than the total initial mass. The mass thus destroyed is converted into energy waves.


We may thus summarize that electrons of all atoms in the universe move round their respective atomic nucleii at a tremendous speed. Moreover, all atoms, ions and molecules, regardless whether they are in a gas, liquid, or solid state, vibrate uninterruptedly at random, with back and forth movements except at a temperature below -273°C. The ionic or molecular bonds are being made and unmade in every nook and corner of the universe. The energy is being released at one place and supplied at another. Energy in one form is being convered into another. One form of matter is being replaced by another. The matter is being converted into energy and vice versa. A pinchful of matter when disintegrated produces an enormous amount of energy. If this energy is released suddenly in the form of an atom bomb, it would produce a tremendous amount of destruction. But in nature the energy is not released for destructive purpose, the radiation waves do not diminish in one jot the substance of God’s material creation but on the other hand they readjust the shape of the innumerable contents of the universe. Every particle of the universe has got a role to perform. Precious treasures are being shaped inside the oceans and in the depths of the Earth. The solar radiations reach the earth and promote photosynthesis in the vegetable kingdom. Food is thus prepared for the plants and animals. Innumerable other phenomena occur day and night. The making and breaking up processes continue uninterruptedly. All that is surplus is sorted out and all that is capable of survival is gradually raised up from one stage to another. Innumerable species of animals and plants become differentiated. The evolutionary processes are thus carried

‘Generally neutron is used for bombardment as it is not affected by the positive charge on the nucleus.
out constantly, in perfect silence and harmony and this all is due to the radiation waves. The Holy Quran describes the above phenomena in a graceful manner, so as to bring into light the process of Allah’s Rububiyyat


“By the (waves of Radiation) that are sent forth constantly for the benefit (of humanity). Those that turn into powder (all that is incapable of survival): and still those that diffuse and make things differentiated one from the other; and make the law of (construction and destruction) unveiled before the humanity so that one may be able to justify his existence by a positive act or take warning from the destructive effect of a negative act Assuredly that which you are promised must come to pass”.

At yet another place the Holy Quran says:


“By (the radiation waves) that scatter (energy); by the (centrifugal and centripetal forces) that lift heavy weights; by the ease and gentleness with which (energy waves) flow; and by the distribution (of tasks) by command; verily that which you are promised is true”.

We have already seen how the celestial bodies send out energy by nuclear fission or fusion and with what ease and gentleness this radiation flows. How the gravitational forces keep the huge big stars and planets with multimillion tons of mass in position? This pull of gravity is invisible and human knowledge is not yet fully developed to find out how it works. These forces of nature function in a state of perfect ease and gentleness. They distribute tasks at various levels not haphazardly but according to ‘Specific laws’. It is not possible to enumerate the number and distribution of these tasks which are processed in perfect coordination and are evidence of the unity of Allah’s plan.


Two different roots of the word Malaika( ) as it occurs in the Holy Quran, are described in Arabic dictionaries. One is ‘ ‘ which means to send messages. The other is ‘ ’ which means power or energy.

All physical communication between any one point in the universe to another is carried out through the agency of radiation. On the other hand, all energy in the universe becomes manifest through radiation. The radiation waves, therefore, being the source of power and means of communication truly-come under the heading of the term Malaika, in so far as it relates to the physical universe.

Some of the functions of Malaika, as described in the Holy Quran are as follows:-

(1)       The distribution of tasks all over the universe-  (51:4)-as described above.

(2)      The planning and readjustment of the shape of innumerable

contents of the universe-( )

As stated earlier, the making and breaking up of chemical bonds depends on the amount of activation and maintenance energy. With the increase in the mount of energy the bond-making processes increase up to a certain limit; beyond this limit the greater the energy the more the speed and violence with which the bonds break. The radiation waves smoothly sail across the space and being of different wave lengths, one type exceeds the other in potency, penetration and consequent effects on environments which are constantly changing. The whole universe is thus perpetually in a state of commotion. The Holy Quran describes this phenomenon in connection with a greater commotion that lies ahead:


“By (the radiation waves) that undo (the bonds) with violence by penetrating (into Materials), and by those that undo (the bonds) with ease, and by those that smoothly float, one exceeding the other (in producing a particular type of effect) and thus readjust the shape of things (in the universe) by command of their Lord: that one day every thing that is in commotion, will be in violent commotion.

Means of communication other than radiation

The Holy Quran also describes means of communication other than the radiation waves:


“Allah chooses His messengers from amongst the ‘Malaika’ and also from amongst the mankind. Lo! Allah has infinite vision and hearing”.

According to the above verse the means of communication between the Creator and the creation are of two different kinds. Radiation is the link between the Creator and the physical word, including human body; and between the different constituents of the creation itself. The other link is the ‘Divine energy’. This link is between the Creator and the living objects, and in the case of man it occurs through the chosen messengers of God from amongst the human beings. The nature and working of this link is beyond the perception of human beings other than the ‘messengers’ themselves. As regards the reception at the (so to say) “control post” of the Creator, it is perfect and infinite. ( )

The other functions assigned to and performed by Malaika in the realm of  are equally beyond human understanding.

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Phenomena of Nature: The Well – Guarded Roof – Dr. Sayed Abdul Wadud

(The defensive mechanism in the nearer heaven which protects life on the earth).


“And We have made the heaven as a roof well guarded, yet do they turn away from the signs which these things (points to)”.

In the above-said verse the Holy Quran points out that the heaven surrounding the earth is a well guarded roof which protects life on the earth. It is one of the most conspicuous signs which impresses upon man that the working of the physical laws as well as the laws given to mankind through revelation, originate from the same source. Yet the non-believers instead of pondering over this significant sign, turn away from it.

At yet another place it is said:


“And We adorned the lower heaven with lamps and (provided therein) Guards. Such are the measures of One Whose might and knowledge are boundless”.

To begin with let us clarify the words  . Literally it means the heaven surrounding our earth. But the question arises how far it extends? Does it mean the atmosphere surrounding our earth? Or does it mean the heaven which encloses our solar system? Or does it include the far away heaven of which stars are visible to us?

The Quran says:            /


“We have made the earth your floor and the heaven your roof and sent down rains from the heaven”.

In the above said verse the word  comprises only trophosphere from which the rain falls down and which extends only seven miles above the surface of the earth. And in the verse (41:12) it is said . “We adorned  with lamps”. What is meant

by lamps? Do they mean the stars which are billions of miles away from the earth? Because in that case,  shall extend very far away

from us. Or do they mean the planets and their satellites which are members of the solar system? The Quran clarifies itself by presenting a subject in different contexts. Thus it is said:


“We have indeed decked the near heaven with beauty in ‘Kwakib’.

Here the word (plural of  ) is used instead of which only mean lamps or luminaries. What is meant by the word ? The meaning of this word has been clarified in still another verse:


“Allah is the light of the heavens and the earth. The parable of His light is as if there were a niche and within it a lamp. The lamp is enclosed in a glass. The glass is as if it were a brilliant,  glittering like a pearl”.

It is said further in this verse that it is on account of this glass that it becomes “light upon light”. The Quran has thus made it abundantly dear that ‘Kawakib’ are those heavenly bodies which reflect light like glass and such heavenly bodies which send reflected light on the earth are none but planets.

Meaning of the word  (seven)

The word    Sabaa, as used in the verse (41:12) above is metaphorical. It does not indicate an exact number but gives an undefined idea of plurality. It is not possible to explain this figure in the present state of our knowledge, because the scientific observation has not revealed, so far, any limits to the universe; and as such our knowledge of the outer space is limited. Lane has mentioned with reference to Bezawi that Arabs use the word seven for plurality. Even in Urdu language certain numbers are used for plurality and they do not indicate an exact number. For example  – “I have told

you twenty times”. “I have told hundred times”.

“Beyond the seven seas”, which only mean a long distance.

The-word  occurs at various other places in the Holy Quran, in the same sense

For instance:


“We have built over you many strong heavens”.


“It is He who has created a number of heavens, closely fitting each other”.


‘”Do you not see, Allah has created a number of heavens, closely fitting one another”.

(23:17) ….

“And We have made above you many tracts”.


The other conspicuous word in the verse (41:12) is “guards”. Before we consider what these guards are and how they protect life on the earth, let us describe briefly the various physical factors involved in this phenomenon. As shall be described later, the sun’s rays consist of high energy radiation such as X-rays and Ultraviolet Rays and low energy radiation such as Heat and Light Rays. High energy radiation is dangerous to life and low energy radiation up to a certain limit is essential for the maintenance of life. When the sun’s radiation reaches nearer to the earth, it is disposed of in three different ways: (a) by reflection (b) by transmission and (c) by absorption. In general, gases are the best transmitters, liquids the best reflectors and solids the best absorbers.

Heat transfer. As regards heat there are three modes of its transfer-       (a) conduction, (b) convection and (c) radiation.

Conduction. When a solid is heated at one end, the motion of the molecules increases, they bombard neighboring molecules and give up some of their motion to them. Thus the increased molecular motion which we feel as heat is carried from one end to the other. This is known as conduction. Since increased heat means increased molecular motion, heat causes substances to expand.

Convection. It can take place only in liquids and gases. When a vessel of water is heated from below, the molecules at the bottom of the vessel move more vigorously. The liquid expands and becomes less dense so that an equal volume of colder liquid weighs more than the warmer liquid. The colder heavier liquid drops down and pushes the warmer liquid up. In this way the colder liquid becomes warmer in turn, until the entire contents are warmed. The continuous movement of the warm and cold portions of the liquid creates a convection current. Convection in air is analogous to convection in liquids.

Radiation. It is quite different from conduction and convection; whereas these two can occur only in material medium, radiation can pass through space which is devoid of matter. Conduction and convection are slow but radiation is instantaneous. For example, if we burn up fire in a room it gets warm immediately by heat radiation. On the other hand, with a steam heating system it may take an hour or more for a room to get warm by convection currents. A body radiates heat to every other body which is cooler than itself whether it is in contact with it or not, but conduction and convection currents can take place only between bodies which are in contact with each other.

How the atmosphere is heated. Dense air absorbs more heat than rare air. Carbon dioxide, water vapour and dust absorb heat better than air. When radiation passes through atmosphere, very little is absorbed by its upper layers. As it penetrates farther and farther into the denser, dustier and moister air, more and more of it is absorbed and the air is more and more heated. The air at the bottom is heated not only because of the greater absorbing power of the lower layers but also because of their contact with the warmer land and water surfaces. The heated air expands and rises, the cooler, heavier air above sinks and takes its place. Thus the entire mass of air gets mixed up by convectional currents.

Now let us proceed to describe the term  (Guards) as it occurs in

the Holy Quran. The earth’s atmosphere is a blanket of gases surrounding the planet. It enables life to exist on the earth, not only because it contains oxygen so essential to life but also because it provides a protective insulation to the earth. Without this insulation, the temperature would have swung from unbearable cold at night to unbearable hot during the day. Just compare it with the moon which is without an atmosphere. There the day temperature rises to 100oC, as high as that of boiling water; and at night the temperature sinks down to-180oC, as low as that of liquid air. Under these conditions no life can exist.

The earth’s atmosphere probably extends at least one thousand miles from the surface of the earth. The air is not a uniform mass but can be divided into layers, each with its own characteristics (Fig. 7). The lowest strata of atmosphere is called Trophosphere. It extends up to seven miles above the surface of the earth. The convectional currents in the atmosphere take place only in this region. It may thus be described as the region of clouds and weather. The temperature rises steadily from about 15″C (in temperate zones) at sea level, to about 56″C at seven miles, while the air thins out with the increasing height.

Above this, is a ten miles thick layer of Stratosphere. The temperature is more or less uniform in this region and is about 60″C. This is because there is no mixing up of air contents by convection. Thus the gases are supposed to exist in strata. Hence the name stratosphere. At its lower boundary the effects of earth’s weather are not usually felt.

Above the Ionosphere is the outermost layer of atmosphere known as Exosphere. The air in this layer is so ratified that its density is only one million-millionth of that at the ground level. Air particles move freely, some escaping into the near-vacuum of outer space.

From the above it becomes dear that the ‘guards’ ( ) as

described in the Holy Quran are the various factors involved in the protection of life on the Earth and these are distributed in the different layers of the Earth’s atmosphere. Ionosphere forms the first line of defence which guards against the harmful effects of radiation from the solar system and of the cosmic rays which come from beyond the solar system. It serves as a filter through which only those rays of the sun are allowed to pass which serve to maintain life on the earth. Meteors which are members of the solar system itself, also burn up here. Chemosphere is the second line of defence which protects against the excessive heat of solar radiation. Trophosphere is the third line of defence. It serves to provide a protective insulation against the excessive rise and fall of temperature.

According to the Holy Quran the protection is provided against  ‘

rebellious forces’.


“We have adorned the nearer heaven with lamps and have made it as missiles to drive away the destructive forces and We have prepared for them the obstacle of fire”.

Above this layer is the layer of Chemosphere, which is 20-30 miles thick. It is mainly an accumulation of ozone gas which is a form of oxygen. When ultraviolet   rays   are   passed through oxygen, ozone is formed, but it is changed back to oxygen by water vapours. The absence of water in the Chemosphere has an important effect on the amount of ozone and this in turn has important effects on the amount of high  energy  solar  radiation received on the earth. Ozone acts in both ways. It protects the earth from high energy solar radiation and prevents the earth radiation to pass out which role is also performed by carbon dioxide. The temperature of Chemosphere is very high as compared with the layers above and below it.

Above this, is the layer of Ionosphere which extends for about 250 miles above the surface of the earth. In the Ionosphere the air particles are electrically charged (ionised) by the sun’s ultraviolet radiation and congregate in four different layers, D, E, Fl and F2. It is these layers which reflect radio waves back to the ground. The temperature increases rapidly from 73°C at the D (lowest) layer to about 1600°C at 200 miles. It is mainly at the lower Ionosphere that meteors from the outer space burn up as they meet the increased air resistance. As already stated, when a meteor enters the Ionosphere it becomes intensely heated by friction against the air particles and destroys itself in the streak of luminosity, known as shooting star. It would have been harmful to life on the earth, if it could pass through the atmosphere. Relatively large bodies known as meteorites, however, are able to complete the journey to the ground without being destroyed, but major falls are rare and there is no authenticated record of any one having been killed by a meteorite.

Cosmic rays are fast moving particles continually entering the upper atmosphere from interplanetary space. Mostly they come from far beyond the solar system and their origin is uncertain. They are extremely penetrating and the heavy primaries may well be dangerous to living matter, but the primaries do not reach the Earth’s surface. They collide with nuclei of atoms in the Ionosphere and yield the harmless secondary cosmic rays.

Above the Ionosphere is the outermost layer of atmosphere known as Exosphere. The air in this layer is so ratified that its density is only one million-millionth of that at the ground level. Air particles move freely, some escaping into the near-vacuum of outer space.

From the above it becomes clear that the ‘guards’ ( ) as

described in the Holy Quran are the various factors involved in the protection of life on the Earth and these are distributed in the different layers of the Earth’s atmosphere. Ionosphere forms the first line of defence which guards against the harmful effects of radiation from the solar system and of the cosmic rays which come from beyond the solar system. It serves as a filter through which only those rays of the sun are allowed to pass which serve to maintain life on the earth. Meteors which are members of the solar system itself, also burn up here. Chemosphere is the second line of defence which protects against the excessive heat of solar radiation. Trophosphere is the third line of defence. It serves to provide a protective insulation against the excessive rise and fall of temperature.

According to the Holy Quran the protection is provided against

‘rebellious forces’.


“We have adorned the nearer heaven with lamps and have made it as missiles to drive away the destructive forces and We have prepared for them the obstacle of fire”.

The word  (root ) means rebellious forces, which may be forces of nature as mentioned in the above said verse, (or the baser sentiments of man himself). As a matter of fact, all forces of nature are rebellious unless they are tamed or bound by measures. For example, an untamed river is rebellious but a river with boundaries raised on its banks becomes beneficial or an asset for mankind.
The arrangement of the lines of defence, one behind the other in order to protect against the rebellious forces, is described as follows:


“By the forces that range themselves in ranks and are so strong in repelling (the opposite ones). And thus proclaim the divine law. Verily, your Allah is One. He is the Sustainer of the heavenly bodies and the earth and all that is between them and provides sustenance at every point of the rising sun. We have indeed decked the nearer heaven with beauty in the planets and have provided guards against all the rebellious forces.

It is said further:


“The rebellions forces can not strain their ears in the direction of divine planning; and become cast away from every side. repulsed for they undergo perpetual obstacle. But such, as stealthily dart away (e.g., meteors), are pursued by a flaming fire of piercing brightness”.

It means that although these rebellious forces try to find their way in, as it is consistent with their nature; yet they are unable to pass the barrier that lies against them by divine planning and adjustment.

“The word  used in the verse (37:8) above is translated as the Highest Assembly”. It means the Alam-e-Amar where tasks are assigned to the forces of nature.

The strata of earths atmosphere described above, which serve as guards to protect life on the earth, against the rebellious forces of Cosmic rays, Gamma rays X-rays, Ultraviolet rays, excessive heat and light rays, as well as metrors, are called  by the Holy Quran. ‘Burooj’ means forts or fortified spheres. Thus it is said:

“It is He who has set out in the sky fortified spheres and made it fair seeming to beholders. And We have guarded it from rebellious forces. But any that steals hearing (i.e., stealthily and silently darts away without being heard) is pursued by a clear flame of fire”.

Our non-scientist commentators, while explaining the above said verses, have related preposterous stories of some sooth-sayers who used to listen to the working of the ‘highest Assembly. They interpret the word  “steal hearing” (15:18) as ‘overhearing which is not correct.

Supposing A speaks and B overhears. In that case B steals the voice of A not his hearing.

Fortified Spheres. Amongst various other sign, the Holy Quran also describes the phenomenon of fortified spheres in ihe nearest heaven (i.e. in Solar System), in support of its truth:-


“By the sky that contains fortified spheres”.

The earth is surrounded by fortified spheres which protect life on the earth, against the rebellious forces of Cosmic rays, Gamma rays, X-rays and Ultra-violet rays. These are named as Trophosphere, Stratosphere, Chemosphere and Ionosphere as stated earlier.


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Phenomena of Nature: A Bird’s Eye View of the Universe – Dr. Sayed Abdul Wadud


(The Divine laws that operate in the physical world, as well as those given to mankind through revelation, are equally immutable). The sun and the moon follow courses exactly computed. The stars (in the heaven) and the trees (on the earth) are (equally) subjected to the Divine laws. And the celestial bodies He raised high and put them (in space perfectly) balanced. That you may not transgress the limits (0 mankind!) prescribed by the Creator for the maintenance of balance (in the human society).


We are living on the Earth which is a member of the Solar System. It is a system controlled by the sun and contains the planets with their satellites, the comets, meteors, asteroids and infer-planetary material.

The Sun


“And We have made (the sun) the source of heat and light”.

Sun is a star round which the earth and other bodies of the solar system revolve. It is a star of an average size, being 864,000 miles in diameter. Its density is only 1.4 times that of water. It is a source of heat and light to the solar system. The life-giving energy of the sun which is generated by the nuclear collision, raises the temperature inside it to about 36 million degrees Centigrade.

The Planets. There are nine major planets in the system and several thousands tiny planets called asteroids. The planets are Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto. Jupiter is the sun’s largest dependent planet. Its diameter is roughly 13 times that of the Earth but is no More than a speck by comparison with the sun itself. The sun contains over 99.87 per cent of the entire mass in the solar system. Mercury is nearest to the sun, the average distance being 36 million miles. The planets move at different speeds in separate orbits and varying distances from the sun. So far as it can be said at present, life does not exist on any planet other than the Earth. Mercury is so close to the sun that the temperature on its sunlit side reaches 500°C. Venus though about double the distance from the sun as Mercury, has a surface temperature of 100°C. Of the planets farther than the Earth from the Sun, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto are too cold and their atmospheres contain poisonous gases, such as hydrogen, helium and ammonia. It is believed that there is some form of life on the Mars but the air over the planet is very thin and icy, and probably some form of primitive vegetation exists there. Earth is the only member of the sun’s family whose composition and distance from the sun has made possible for life to exist.

As far as it is known today, no other planetary system exists in the universe.

Satellites. These are small or secondary planets revolving round the larger ones. They are too small in relation to their mother planets. The moon is the only satellite of a size comparable to its planet, the Earth.

Asteroids. An asteroid is a minor planet, a small world moving round the sun. Most, though not all, asteroids have orbits which lie between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. Ceres, the largest, has a diameter of 430 miles. The total number of asteroids in the solar system has been roughly estimated as 45,000.

Comets. ( )

Comet is a member of the solar system moving round the sun in an orbit which is more elliptical than that of a planet. A large comet is made up of relatively small particles surrounded by an envelope of tenuous gas while the tail consists of excessively rarified gas and a fine dust released by solar heat.  There are several dozens of known short period comets. Encke’s Comet, for instance, has a period of 3.3 years and has been observed at nearly 50 separate returns. The only bright comet with a period less than a century is Halley’s (Fig. 2) which takes 76 years to complete one journey round the sun, and was visible last time in 1986. Great comets have been extremely rare of late. It seems that comets are short-lived. The Holy Quran describes it as  “ (81:16), i.e., the heavenly body that regularly moves in its orbit without any hindrance and still goes into hiding for a long period.  (the) indicates that it refers to a particular group of heavenly bodies.

Meteors. These are small bodies moving round the sun, in the manner of a dwarf planet. If it enters the upper atmosphere it becomes intensively heated by friction against the air particles and destroys itself in the streak of luminosity known as shooting star. The average shooting star is very small, a few thousandths of a gramme in weight. It is estimated that about 100 million meteors enter the earth’s atmosphere daily.

Inter-Planetary (and inter-stellar) matter: It was formerly believed that the space in-between the stars must be empty, but this is now known to be wrong. There is a large quantity of inter-stellar material; much of it is hydrogen, though other substances also occur.


A star is a globe of incandescent gas. The distance between stars is measured by the methods of trignometrical parallax. Beyond a distance of several hundred light years the parallax becomes too small to be measured and alternative methods have to be employed. One such method is to deduce the star’s real luminosity by examination of its spectrum, when the distance may be computed.

The stars that we see are so far away from us that when we look at them, we look back deep into the past, for we see them not as they are now but often as they were hundreds of years ago. The light we receive from most of them began its journey long before we were born, and from the more distant ones long before man appeared on the Earth. Even light of the sun, a mere 93 million miles away, takes 8 minutes to reach the Earth; from the nearest star, Proxima Centauri in the Southern hemisphere it takes more than four years. The vast distances in space need a measure longer than a mile. Astronomers use the light year which is the distance travelled by light in one year; the distance travelled in one second being 186,300 miles. In these terms Proxima Centauri is four and a one-third light years away from the Earth. The distance from earth to the bright star Altair is about 16 light years, to Vega 26 light years, to Deneb 1500 light years, while some stars of the Milky Way are so far distant that their light takes thousands of light years to reach us. The stars are, therefore, placed at great distances in space not only form the Earth but also from one another.

The stars vary greatly in size. Though the Sun seems large to us, it is no more than an average star in the rest of the heavens. Some stars called super-giants make the sun seem a tiny dwarf. Betelgeux, for instance, could contain not only the Sun and the Earth’s orbit round it but the entire orbit of the planet Mars – an orbit of 284 million miles in diameter. On the other hand, there are stars which are a few thousandths of the sun’s size. Stars vary considerably in brightness and so are graded in different magnitudes. The brightest stars belong to the 1st Magnitude, those slightly less bright to the second, and so on until we reach the sixth magnitude which consists of stars just visible to the naked eye on a very clear night. A star of 1st magnitude is 100 times brighter than a star of the sixth magnitude. Compared with some first-magnitude stars, the sun’s light is very faint. The brightest stars in the sky are not necessarily the nearest to us. Several very faint stars are in fact nearer to the earth than the most bright ones.


The stars are arranged in groups or systems called Galaxies. The galaxy of which the sun with its family of planets is a member, appears to consist of 100,000 million stars, gaseous Nebulae* and an immense quantity of interstellar material. Seen edge-on from outside, the Milky Way system looks like a fairly flat disc with a thick cloud of stars near and around the center. Seen at right angles, it looks like a Catherine-wheel with numerous spiral arms of varying size going out from the center. The sun lies in one of these arms. It is so far away from the center that it needs about 200 million years to complete one orbit round the “hub” of the Catherine-wheel,Calculated on the basis of the sun’s estimated age, it can have made only about 20 complete circuits. The diameter of the galaxy is 1,000,000 light years and the thickness 10,000 light years. The sun lies about 25,000 to 30,000 light years from the galactic nucleus.

Scientific observation has as yet revealed no limits to the universe and has so far probed only a fraction of it, yet to travel to the frontier of that observed fraction, even at the speed of light, would take 6,000 million years. The different bodies and structures in the universe, all of which appear to be receding from us, range from single galaxies to mammoth clusters containing as many as 500 galaxies. Although the cluster of galaxies, to which our galaxy belongs is comparatively small (it has only 14 members), our galaxy itself, the Milky Way system, ranks among the larger of the known stellar systems. There are thousands of millions of galaxies of varying sizes and structures. The most distant one, whose distance has so far been determined with any degree of accuracy, lies perhaps at 5,000 million light years.

‘Nebula is a cloud of interstellar matter. It is generally assumed that galactic nebulae are regions in which fresh stars are being created. If a nebula contains suitable stars, it shines either by exertation, by reflection, or by both; if not it shows up as a dark mass blotting out the light of more distant stars.



Let us at the outset describe briefly the nature and properties of the materials that make up the Earth’s surface. In its original gaseous state, we believe there were only the chemical elements. As these gases cooled down, some elements combined with others, forming compounds, e.g., water is a compound. A simple element or compound found in the earth, but not formed by plants or animals is called a Mineral e.g., Quartz – a mineral, composed of the elements silicon and oxygen. A rock consists, chiefly of mixtures of minerals; Granite, for example, is a rock composed of at least three minerals, quartz, feldspar and mica. Some rocks consist of only one mineral, e.g., limestone; it is called a rock because it forms whole areas of the surface of the earth. Kinds of Rocks – We believe that the original gases that formed the earth, cooled down to become liquids first and solids later. Any rock derived from the molten condition, we call it Igneous. The loose material carried down by rivers and deposited on the continential  shelf  as  sediment  becomes consolidated into rocks: such rocks we call Sedimentary rocks. Both these kinds


1      1 CRUST  2. MANTLE



of rocks, igneous and sedimentary, when subjected to the action of water, heat, pressure, movement and other forces, are changed into what we call, Metamorphic rocks. The surface layer of the earth in which are situated the continents, oceans and mountains is called the Earth’s Crust. It is composed of all the three kinds of rocks-igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic.

The continental parts of the earth’s crust are composed of rocks of many different compositions which as a whole have a density and composition of granite. The granite layer is called Sial because of the predominance of silica and aluminium in its composition. Underneath the granite layer is a denser layer which has an average density and composition similar to that of the common black volcanic lava known as basalt. The basaltic layer (termed Sima because of its richness in magnesium) directly underlines the ocean floor, and here forms the thinnest part of the earth’s crust. In continental areas the granite and basaltic layers together reach an average thickness of about three miles. The best clues to what lies beneath the Earth’s exterior are provided by records of earthquake shocks. Shock waves passing through the earth are found to change their direction and speed at certain level which are known asdiscontinuities. The first major discontinuity is at the base of the basaltic layer where the latter rests on the Mantle – the second layer of the earth. At this level a marked change in the velocity of earthquake waves takes place. This may be due to a change in the chemical nature of the rocks or merely a change in their physical state.

The Mantle extends to a depth of 1,800 miles where a second major discontinuity marks the beginning of Outer Core — the third layer of the earth. The material near the inner edge of the Mantle is two to three times as heavy as the surface rocks.

The Outer Core is 1,310 miles thick and is probably formed of heavy metals (iron and nickel) in molten form.

The next layer, the Inner-Core or the innermost layer of the earth, 850 miles thick, is believed to consist of the same material as the outer core but in a solid state. Knowledge that the earth could not consist entirely of the surface rocks, came first from the planets’ weight measured by its pull of gravity, for these materials are too light to account for a total mass of 6,600 million million million tons.

Movements of the earth’s crust. Movements of the earth’s crust take place both gradual and sudden. There is much evidence in hand to show that every part of the earth’s crust has moved at one time or the other. The finding of the skeleton of a whale in the glacial gravels near Lake Champlain and the remains of other massive animals in the sedimentary rocks of mountains can mean only one thing: these areas were once under sea water. The ancient temple of Jupiter Serapis at Pozzuoli, near Pompeii, is known to have been on dry land A.D. 235. When it was rediscovered in 1749, the bases of its remaining upright columns were buried in marine sediments to a depth of twelve feet above the floor of the temple.

Some of the changes in the earth’s crust must have been due to sinking of the ocean bottom, which would permit the water to run off the land; others to the accumulation of vast amounts of sediment, eroded from the land and deposited in the sea, which would cause the water to overflow the land; still others to a glacial epoch, which precipitated the water, evaporated from the ocean, as snow instead of water. It has been estimated that if the ice sheets of the earth today were all melted, it would raise the level of the oceans about 80 feet. There have been many times when entire continents were uplifted or depressed.

The theory of Isostasy. The cause of the periodic uplift and depression ‘is said to be as follows:- The sediments eroded from the mountains are deposited by rivers on the continental shelf. This causes the removal of the load from the land segment which becomes lighter; on the other hand it makes the ocean segment heavier. The rock underneath the crust is solid but very hot; and there is reason to believe that it is plastic. Thus a slow adjustment takes place, pushing down the ocean segment and forcing up the granite land segment. This re-elevation of land segment is again followed by erosion and thus a cycle of its uplift and depression continues.

Besides these movements of the earth’s crust which are usually imperceptible, requiring millions of years, there are rapid movements which originate from the forces that work in the depths of the earth’s interior. The constant movements in the depth of the earth mount in intensity from time to time, culminating in Orogenies, profound disturbances in the earth’s crust, which give rise to great mountain ranges. The early stage of an orogeny is down-warping of the crust and formation of a sea-filled basin in which great thicknesses of sedimentary rock accumulate. Later the sides of the basin gradually move towards each other and the bottom moves up. The sedimentary rocks caught in this vice are folded and slid over each other piling up into a great mountain chain. The fractures along which the sliding takes place are called Thrusts or Thrust Faults (Fig. 6). Heat and pressure in the depths of the down-warp – the roots of the mountain range — metamorphose the sedimentary rocks and allow molten granite rocks to form. This rises under great pressure, either crystallizing on the way up to give ‘intrusions’ or drilling an outlet in the Earth’s surface to pour as volcanic lava and ashes. As soon as the folded rocks

B                    C                     d


(A)   Fault Block. (B) Normal Fault, (C) Reversed Fault. (D) Tear Fault.

  1. Overfold. 2. Reversed Fault.    3. Normal Fault.  4. Horst.
  2. Step-faulted rift-valley. 6. Folding. 7. Fault-block  mountains.

appear above the surface of the sea, the destructive action of wind, rain, frost and waves begins. Eventually the mountains succumb; layers of sediment are deposited in places over the eroded rocks and a surface of low relief with meandering rivers is all that is left.

Thus in the jigsaw of rocks that form the earth’s surface, the pieces are slowly and endlessly being rearranged.


In the words of Sir Eddington, “We can have no conception how it all began in the past. But at some stage we imagine the void to have been filled with matter rarefied beyond most tenuous nebulae, the atoms sparcely strewn hither and thither in formless disorder. Then gradually the power of gravitation is felt. Centers of condensation begin to establish themselves and draw in other matter. The first partitions are star systems, such as our galactic system. Sub-condensations separate the star clouds or clusters; these divide again to give the stars. This process of evolution has not reached the same development in all parts. We observe nebulae and clusters in different stages of advance. Some stars are still highly diffused, others are concentrated like the sun with density greater than water; others, still more advanced, have struck to unimaginable density. But no doubt can be entertained that the genesis of the stars is a single process of evolution which has passed and is passing over a primordial distribution.

Formerly it was speculated that the birth of a star was an individual event, like the birth of an animal. From time to time, two long extinct stars would collide and be turned into vapours by the energy of the collision; condensation would follow and life as a luminous body would begin all over again. We can scarcely affirm that that shall never occur and that the sun is not destined to have a second or third innings; but it is clear from the various trends among the stars that the present stage of existence of the sidereal universe is the first innings. Groups of stars are formed Which move across the sky with common propel motion; they must have had a single origin and cannot have been formed by casual collision.

Formation of Planetary System. As far as our present knowledge goes, our planetary system is unique in the universe, though it may be difficult to assume that nowhere else in the universe has nature repeated the strange experiment which she has performed on the earth.

On examining the stars with a telescope we find that a good number of stars which appear single to the eye are actually two stars close together. When telescope fails to separate them, the spectroscope often reveals two stars in orbital revolution round each other. At least one star in three is double. The most obvious cause of division of stars is excessive rotation. As the gaseous globe contracts, it spins faster, until a time may come when it can no longer hold together and some kind of relief must be found. It has been assumed that the planetary system has come into existence in a similar way. According to the Nebular hypothesis of Laplace, the sun gained relief by throwing off successively rings of matter which have formed the planets. It might be held that the ejection of a planetary system and the fission into a double star are alternative solutions of the problem arising from excessive rotation, the star taking one course or the other according to circumstances. But we know myriads of double stars and of only one planetary system; but in any case it is beyond our power to detect other planetary systems if they exist. Research work by other scientists indicate that rotational break up produces a double star and never a system of planets. The solar system is not a typical product of development of a star; it is not even a common variety of development, it is a freak.

By elimination of alternatives, it appears that a configuration resembling the solar system would only be formed if at a certain stage of condensation an unusual accident had occurred. According to Jeans the accident was the close approach of another star casually pursuing its way through space. This star must have passed within a distance not far outside the orbit of Neptune; it must not have passed rapidly but have slowly overtaken or been overtaken by the sun. By tidal distortion it raised big protuberances on the sun and caused it to spurt out filaments of matter which have condensed to form planets. This was long time ago. The intruding star has since gone on its way and mingled with the others; its legacy of a system of planets remains, including a globe habitable by man”. (The Nature of the Physical World).

According to the evolutionary theory all the material in the universe was formerly concentrated in what may be termed a ‘Primeval Atom’, so that the universe was created at one particular moment and will eventually die. Supporters of the steady state theory, on the other hand, maintain that the universe has always existed and will exist for ever and that fresh matter is continuously being formed. Present observational evidence seems to favour the former hypothesis rather than the latter.

As regards the origin of the universe, the Holy Quran declared fourteen hundred years ago:  


“Do not the unbelievers see that the heavenly bodies and the earth were joined together (as one unit of creation), before We clove them asunder? And We made from water every living thing: will they not believe?”

The Scale of Time. The creation of man started about one million years ago while the existence of the earth is estimated to be 5,000 million years. The sun must have been burning still longer, living on its own matter which dissolves bit by bit into radiation. So tremendous is the radiation rate of the sun’s energy that it loses some four million tons in weight every second. According to the theoretical time scale which seems best supported by astronomical evidence, the beginning of sun as a luminous star must be dated five billion (5.1012 ) years ago. On the other hand, despite the tremendous rate of loss on account of radiation, it may continue as a star of increasing feebleness for at least another 16,000 million years. The theory of subatomic energy has prolonged the life of a star from millions to billions of years and we may speculate on processes of rejuvenation which might prolong the existence of the sidereal universe from billions to trillions of years.


As already described, to begin with the Earth and the celestial bodies were all one mass and later broke into pieces. (21:30). At a still later stage the solar system which was one compact mass, got separated into the sun (the main mass) and the planets. The most obvious cause of it being the excessive rotation of the sun which gained relief by the separation and recession of the planetary pieces, the Earth being one of them. The Holy Quran says:


“And after that We threw out the Earth”.

This process of recession still continues as far as the galaxies are concerned. The spectra of galaxies show red-shifts which means that there is an apparent shift of all the spectral lines towards the red or long wave end of the spectrum. This indicates motion of RECESSION. It seems that each group of galaxies is moving away from each other group, so that the entire observable universe is expanding. The only galaxies which are not racing away from us are those of the local group. It has been found that the farther away the galaxies are, the greater is their velocity of recession. The scientists have observed only recently that the universe is expanding. It is marvellous that the holy Quran pointed out towards this fact 1400 years earlier when it was said:


“With power and skill. We did construct the heaven. Verily We are expanding it”.


The stars and the extrastellar bodies in a galaxy, or the members of a group of galaxies, are held together by the pull of gravity. Gravitation is the universal attraction of every particle of matter for every other particle; the force is proportional directly to the product of the masses of bodies and inversely to the square of distance between them. For example, in the solar system, the sun by its pull of gravity keeps the planets under control, in spite of their comparative smallness and the enormous distances that separate them from the sun and from one another. Similarly the sun-and the other 100,000 million stars belonging to the Milky Way are kept under control by the galactic nucleus.

The relative position of a group of celestial bodies, say for instance, the solar system, is kept steady by means of two forces. Firstly, the pull of gravity on account of which the planets are pulled towards the sun and secondly the speed with which these planets move round the sun. These centrifugal (force pulling away from the center) and centripetal (force pulling towards the center) forces, are so balanced that they keep the relative position of the sun and the planets steady. Thus the celestial bodies with billions of tons of weight are kept in position without any visible pillars. The Holy Quran says:

(13:2) …..

“Allah is One Who raised the celestial bodies without any visible pillars and is established on the throne of authority”.


“He created the heavenly bodies without any pillars that you can see”.


“The celestial bodies He has raised high and He has set up a balance (in between them)”.

The Holy Quran introduces this mathematical balance maintained between the heavenly bodies, as a guidance for mankind and asks human beings to act justly to each other and to observe balance in all their actions and never to tansgress due balance in anything.


“In order that you may not transgress (due) balance”.

Just as a small imbalance between the centrifugal and centripetal forces may be the cause of destruction of a system of heavenly bodies, so does an injustice in the human affairs disrupts the smooth running of the human society.


The movement of any star or a planet takes place in a definite orbit around its gravitational nucleus. For example, in the case of solar system the gravitational nucleus is in the sun, and the planets revolve round the sun in their respective orbits with an utmost precision (Fig. 2).

Actually the orbits of the planets are elliptical. The closer a planet is to the sun, the faster it moves. For instance. Mercury, at an average distance of 36 million miles from the sun, moving at a speed of 30 miles per sec., takes 88 days to revolve round the sun; while the Earth the average distance of which from the sun is 93



(Model showing laws of planetary motion, is at the bottom)

million miles, needs exactly one year to complete its orbit, travelling at a speed of IS.F miles per second. Pluto, the most distant known planet about 3666 million miles from the sun takes 248 years, moving at a speed of mere 3 miles per second. The German astronomer Johanres Keppler, (Fig. 8) first gave the laws of planetary motion between the years 1609 and 1619 A.D. The Astronomia Nova published in 1609 is Keppler’s most important work. Keppler concluded after painstaking calculations that the principles concerning the movement of the planets which had been recognised since the time of Aristotle should be abandoned. They do not revolve round the sun in circular orbits but in elliptical orbits and their velocity is not constant over the entire course. Keppler succeeded in establishing the laws of planetary motion which were in complete accordance with the observations which had been made. The laws are as follows:

(1)     The orbits of the planets are elliptical, the sun lying at one of the faces of the ellipse.

(2)    The radius vector i.e., the line joining the center of the planet to the center of the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times.

(3)    The square of the revolution periods of any two planets is                     proportional to the cubes of their mean distance from the                     sun.

Fig. 9 shows Keppler’s House, with Model showing laws of planetary motion.

The planets not only move in their respective orbits round the sun but also each one undergoes an axial rotation around its own axis. Take for example the moon. The moon is generally regarded as earth’s satellite but on the whole it seems preferable to term the earth-moon system a double planet. The orbit of the moon is markedly elliptical and is always concave to the sun. The distance from the Earth ranges between 221,460 miles perigee (point in the orbit of moon or planet which is nearest to the earth) and 252,700 miles apogee (point in orbit of moon or planets farthest from the earth), the range giving a mean of 238,840 miles. The revolution period is 27 days, 7 hours and 43 minutes, and this is also the period of axial rotation. But since the rotational period is constant, while the velocity in orbit changes (see Keppler’s laws of planetary mission; which apply to a planet and its companion, as well as to a planet in relation with the sun), the position in the orbit and the amount of rotation become regularly ‘out of step’; the moon seems to rock very slowly to and fro, uncovering first one limb and then the other.

The Holy Quran says:


“And the moon, We have measured for her its stages, till she returns like the old (and withered) lower part of date stalk”.
The Holy Quran described the movements of the planets and the stars in those dark ages when people mostly believed the earth to be stationary. The Holy Quran described the earth as a cradle i.e., an object which regularly moves and at the same time provides ease and comfort:


“Have We not made earth a cradle and the mountains as pegs”?


“He created the celestial bodies without pillars that you can see. He set on the earth mountains standing firm, so that (the earth) moves with you”.

As regard the orbits the Holy Quran says:


“It is He Who created the night and the day and the sun and the moon. All (heavenly bodies swim along, each in its orbit.”

The movement inside the respective orbits is so accurately timed that the heavenly bodies do not collide with one another:


“It is not permitted to the sun to overtake the moon, nor can the night outstrip the day. Each (just swim along in (its own) orbit”.

So accurate are the movements of the heavenly bodies that we base the calculation of time on the position of the sun and the moon in their respective orbits:


“It is He Who made the sun, the source of light and the moon a reflected light and measured out stages for her that you may know the number of years and the count (of time). This is nothing but a part of His constructive design”.


“It is He Who cleaveth the daybreak (from the dark). He made the night for rest and tranquillity and the sun and the moon for the reckoning (of time)”.

Our calendars are mostly based on the relative position of the earth and the sun and the consequent seasonal incidence on the earth. There are, however, other phenomena on the earth whose reckoning of time, coincides with the movements of the moon. For instance, the human fetal life coincides with the lunar months. The stay of a normal human fetus inside the mother’s uterus is 280 days i.e., ten lunar months. As already stated, the revolution period of moon is about 28 days and same is the period of menstrual cycle in a woman. The tidal waves of the sea are well known to be related to the movements of the moon.


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Phenomena of Nature: The Quran on Creation of the Universe – Dr. Sayed Abdul Wadud

(6 : 1)

The entire creation of the universe and the various aspects of life on the earth are so attractive and captivating, for one who uses his intellect and vision, that he spontaneously expresses his feelings of praise for the One Who created the heavens and the earth, and made the darkness and the light (of revelation).


The Holy Quran describes Allah as  (6 :14), which means that Allah is one Who created the heavens and the earth for the first time when there was nothing in the universe. At another place the Holy Quran says;

(2 : 117)  “He is the originator of the heavens and the earth. When He decrees a plan. He says to it BE and it is.”

Again it is said:

(36 : 82) “His law of creation is such that when He intends a thing, His decree is BE and it is.”

The underlying idea in the above verses is that Divine intentions and decisions are in fact an integral part of God’s process of creation. The Holy Quran has used two different words for creation. They rather indicate the two different stages of creation. One is Amr, the other is Khalq. Khalq means to create a new object from the existing constituents. This is where an object appears in its manifest form. But prior to this is a stage where an object is still in the process of ‘becoming’. This planning stage is described by the Holy Quran as Alam-e-Amr. What is the nature of this planning “and how it is carried out is beyond human imagination.

This is also described by the Holy Quran as Masliiyyat of Allah which nobody can question.

(14 : 27) “Allah acts according to His will”. Here ‘will’ does not mean whims and wishes. It means a set of laws.

(21 : 23) “He cannot be questioned for His acts.”

For example, fire burns. Why fire is given the burning property, nobody can question. Why the inner ‘shell’ of an atom has got two electrons, nobody can question.

The word Amr, as it occurs in various other contexts in the Holy Quran, requires further elucidation. It means a guidance, or guidance by command. There are two other aspects of this guidance. Firstly, the laws governing the phenomena of nature. These are also called Amr. For example the Holy Quran says:

(7 : 54) “The sun, the moon and the stars are subservient to His (command) law.”

Another beautiful example where the Holy Quran uses the word Amr for the laws governing the phenomena of nature is the floating of ships on the sea. We find in the world of Science that a body wholly or partially immersed in a fluid, suffers loss of weight, equal to the weight of the fluid displaced (Archimede’s principle). If the weight of the body is greater than the weight of the fluid displaced, it sinks. If the weight of the body is less than the fluid displaced, it floats. When a body is floating on the surface of a fluid, a portion of the body is immersed in the fluid, so that the weight of the fluid displaced by the immersed portion is equal to the weight of the entire floating body. This is the law according to which the ship floats on the water. The Holy Quran says:

(22:65) “Do you not see that the law of God has made subject to you all that is on the earth; and the ships that sail through the sea by His (Amr) law. He withholds the celestial bodies from falling on the earth, except according to His law.”

Another phenomenon of nature described in the above verse, is that the celestial bodies do not fall on the earth. This, as shall be explained later, is due to the balance between the centripetal force of gravity and centrifugal force of rotation. If ever the balance between these forces is disturbed at any stage of evolution, the celestial bodies are liable to collide against each other; and that also will be according to a certain law.

Thus, as stated above, the initiative of Divine laws was absolute and unquestionable. Now, the execution of these laws is carried out within specified patterns. This is known as Taqdir.

(33 : 38) “The Divine laws are bound by certain measures.”

(65 : 3) “Allah has made a specific pattern for everything that exists.”

A mango seed shall always grow into a mango tree. This is its Taqdir. Thus, after the initial planning, the execution of these laws has been channelised. The more we explore nature, the more we gain knowledge of these laws. But our knowledge is confined only to the extent of finding out how these laws work. Why do they work as such, we do not know.

Secondly, the laws that govern human affairs and were given to mankind through God’s messengers are also called Amr. These laws are today lying in safe custody inside the Holy Quran only. They govern the rise and fall of nations and also the development of the personality of an individual, and are known as . The Holy Quran says:

(8:42) “But Allah had decided to execute a plan that had to be carried out, so that he who perishes must have an obvious cause of his death and he who survives must have an obvious cause of his survival.  And verily Allah is one Who is All-hearing and All-knowing.”

We may summarise that the guidance or guidance by command of God works in three different ways: (1) The first being the planning of certain schemes and the initiation of laws that govern the execution of these schemes. (2) The second being the actual execution of these schemes according to the above laws; all the phenomena of nature are thus con­trolled by these laws and all animate and inanimate objects in nature are bound to obey them, the animals obey them by instinct. (3) The third being the laws concerning humanity given to mankind through revelation, with the difference that human beings are imbued with the faculty of ”freedom of choice and will.” They are thus given an option whether to obey these laws or not, the result, however, being either construction or destruction according to how the human beings act.

The fact that the law-giver is one and the laws governing the phenomena of nature and those governing the human affairs originate from the same source, and that there is a unity of purpose in the creation of the universe, is described in the Holy Quran over and over again, in so many different ways. That the most obvious and attractive phenomena of nature and the most wonderful capabilities of human personality are all governed from the same source, is beautifully described in the following verses:

(91 :1-10) “By the sun and its brightness and by the moon as she follows him. By the day as it shows up the sun’s glory and by the night as it conceals it. By the heavenly bodies and their (wonderful) structures. By the earth and its (wide) expanse. By the human personality and the order and equilibrium given to it and the (wonderful) way in which the possibilities of its disintegra­tion and protection therefrom have been ingrained therein. All these laws governing the phenomena of nature as well as those that govern the human personality are witness to the fact that truly the one who develops his personality (by his right conduct) does succeed, and the one who disintegrates it by his misdeeds, fails.”

Immutability of Divine Laws

The Holy Quran says:(6 : 34) ….. ….. “Nobody can change the laws of God.” Not even the messenger of God.

(3:127)…. (O Messenger of God!) you are not given the authority to change the laws of God.”

(30 : 30)…. …. “Allah’s process of creation never changes.”

(17 : 77)  “You do not find a change in the working of our (Divine) laws.”

(35 : 43) …  …“So you can never find a change in the working of the Divine Laws.” This magnificent proclamation by the Holy Quran, fourteen hundred years ago, when a concept of law hardly existed, now forms the basis of all scientific research and is the essence of  (the law that every effect has got a cause). All the past, present and future scientific research is indebted to this fundamental. All the wonderful adventures in the outer space today are the outcome of a confidence in the immutability of the laws of nature.

God’s Creation is Perfect

The Holy Quran says:

(67 : 3-4) “It is He Who created several heavens closely fitting one another. No want of proportion will you see in the creation of one Who created things within a specified pattern. So turn thy vision again. Do you notice any flaw? So again turn thy vision a second time; your vision will come back to you dull and discomforted in a state worn out.”

Against the background described above, now let us proceed to describe the shape and structure of the universe.

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Islamic Way of Living: The Summation – Dr. Sayed Abdul Wadud

Described above are the main injunctions and guiding lines for the Muslim which, when acted upon, bring grace, peace and happiness, to the individuals as well as to the society. To act upon the Divine laws, is sure to bring fruit. The result may be delayed but it is assured by the Quran.

Moreover, it must be kept in mind that the object of ‘Deen’ or the Islamic Way of Life, is to bring about perfect mutual relationship between humanity as a whole. An individual who is regular in prayers, keeps fast and goes for Haj, but at the same time, his dealings are not good with other people, is not a good Muslim, according to the Holy Quran.

This book deals with matters related to every day life of Muslims. It is not a detailed description of the ‘Deen’ that was revealed to Muhammad (PBUH). Yet its utility lies in the fact that only those people can become true custodians of an ‘Islamic Social Order’, who the early part of their life.

The Creator of the Universe laid down specific patterns for the growth and development of all that exists in nature:

“Allah has made specific patterns for everything that exists.”

A Mango seed shall always grow into a mango tree and shall bear fruit, which could be nothing else but mango. As the laws of nature as well as the laws revealed to the messengers of Allah originated from the same source, patterns similar to those in nature have been laid down, for the moral and social development of man, in the Holy Quran. That is why the future of a nation depends on the type of upbringing of its younger generation.

May Allah Almighty bestow the younger generation of Muslims, the inclination and strength to follow the guidance of the Quran so as to make them enter a life of glory and prosperity.

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Islamic Way of Living: Preface – Dr. Sayed Abdul Wadud


The future of a nation depends on the type of upbringing of its younger generation. Muslims living abroad, especially Pakistanis, feel apprehensive of their children going astray, under the influence of foreign culture. They have asked me off and on the write a book on the “Islamic Way of Living”, which could be useful for the young.

The work I have produced is not the exact translation but a reproduction in English of the book entitled ” ISLAMEE MUASHRAT”, by late Allama G.A. Parwez. It comprises such Quranic injunctions which guide the way to the formation of an Islamic Society. It is not a Philosophical treatise but a description in simple terms, meant for children, as well as for those who neither have time, nor aptitude to go in to details.


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Islamic Way of Living: Relationship With Non-Belivers – Dr. Sayed Abdul Wadud

— The ethical aspect of the Quranic teachings includes not only a gentle treatment with the believers but also with the non-believers. The Quran ordains that all human beings must be treated kindly and gently, without any distinction between them. For example, when it is ordained that men should lower their gazes when they meet women, it does not mean believing woman only, it means all women, believers or non-believers. Similarly when it is ordained that you should not usurp other people’s property, it means the property of Muslims as well as of non-Muslims, irrespective of their creed. As a matter of fact an Islamic Social Order is responsible for the protection and nourishment of humanity as whole. That is what is meant by (نظامِ ربوبيت) as ordained by the Holy Quran.

MEANING OF THE WORD K’AFIR –– Non-believers often complain that Quran calls them ‘K’AFIR. But it must be realised that the word ‘K’AFIR is not an abuse. It means ” the one who does not believe in Quranic code of laws”. Islam being a social order those who believe in this code are Muslims or members and those who do not believe are ‘K’afirs’ or non-members of the Islamic Society. Thus the word ‘K’afir does not mean contempt.


Wala tasubboo allatheena yadAAoona min dooni Allahi fayasubboo Allaha AAadwan bighayri Aailmin (6/108)

“You revile not those unto whom they pray, besides Allah, lest they, out of respite, revile Allah, in their ignorance.”

It is true that where non-Muslims do not exist, there shall be no idol left at that place; but it does not mean that you begin to destroy their places of worship. The Quran goes against it.

THE PROTECTION OF PLACES OF WORSHIP OF NON-MUSLIMS —  The Quran says that if the rebellious forces are allowed to flourish, they shall destroy the places of worship of the weaker ones. Therefore Allah creates such groups of peoples who check the rebellious from doing wrong, so that men of all religions may carry on their worship peacefully:

Walawla dafAAu Allahi alnnasa baAAdahum bibaAAdin lahuddimat sawamiAAu wabiyaAAun wasalawatun wamasajidu yuthkaru feeha ismu Allahi katheeran (22/40)

“Had not Allah checked one set of people by means of another, they would surely have pulled down monasteries, churches, synagogues and mosques in which the name of Allah is commemorated in abundant measures.”


Walaqad baAAathna fee kulli ommatin rasoolan (16/36)

“For We assuredly sent amongst every people a messenger”.

The names of some of the Allah’s messengers are mentioned in the Quran but there are others whose names are not given:

Warusulan qad qasasnahum AAalayka min qablu warusulan lam naqsushum Aaalayka (4/164)

“Of some messengers We have already told you the story, of others We have not.”

But a Muslim should believe in all the messengers to be true. They should not be differentiated from one another in their capacity of being the messengers of Allah:

La nufarriqu bayna ahadin minhum wanahnu lahu muslimoona (3/84)

” We make no distinction between one another among them and to Allah we bow our will.”

Belief in Allah’s Messengers and their scriptures means to believe in their appearance at different times, amongst different people, so that they were equal to one another in their capacity of being ‘Rasools’.

RESPECT OF ALLAH’S MESSENGERS — Thus it has become incumbent upon Muslims to believe in all the Messengers of Allah, the question of disrespect to any of them does not arise. But at the same time we cannot accept the way of life the non-Muslims are leading as the one prescribed by Allah; because the scriptures brought their Rasools are no more left in their original form. ‘Deen’ or the way of life prescribed by Allah, now lies safely, only inside the pages of the Quran. The process of revelation stopped after a (دين) way of life, perfect in all respects was revealed to Muhammad (PBUH) in the form of the Quran. Thus the appearance of the messengers of Allah came to an end. (It may be noted that there is no difference between a ‘Nabi’ and a ‘Rasool’. ‘Nabi’ means a recipient of Divine message, Rasool means a person who delivers to mankind the Divine message revealed to him by Allah. Thus he is ‘Nabi’ as well Rasool i.e., the recipient of Divine message as well as its deliverer. ‘Rasalat’ and ‘Nabuwwat’ are, therefore, the facets of the same coin).

FREEDOM OF BELIEF —  The Quran has declared that (الديّن) or the way of life prescribed by Allah, now lies only within itself. But their is no compulsion for anybody to accept it.

La ikraha fee alddeeni qad tabayyana alrrushdu mina alghayyi (2/256)

“There is no compulsion (to follow) the way of life based on the Quranic guidance, The right direction is henceforth distinct from error”.

Thus there is freedom of choice whether on follows this way or that way:

Waquli alhaqqu min rabbikum faman shaa falyu/min waman shaa falyakfur…. (18/29)

” Say: (It is) the truth from the sustainer of you (all). Then who-so-ever will, let him believe, and who-so-ever will, let him disbelieve”.

The Quran has even declared :

Wa-in ahadun mina almushrikeena istajaraka faajirhu hatta yasmaAAa kalama Allahi thumma ablighhu ma/manahu  (9/6)

“If one amongst the idolators asks thee for asylum grant it to him, so that he may hear the word of Allah, and if he wants to go somewhere, escort him to (the place) where he can be secure”.

Note:- May it be repeated that all Muslims of the world belong to one Ummah or nations and all non-Muslims belong to another nation. Muslims and non-Muslims  together do not form one nation. Muslims are ordained by the Quran to do justice to non-Muslims and non-Muslims together do not form a common nationhood.

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Islamic Way of Living: Collective Life Of Muslims – Dr. Sayed Abdul Wadud

The Holy Quran ordains the Muslims to live a social life in the form of one compact nation, ‘Millat’ or ‘Ummah’. ‘Ummah’ means an ideologically united people. The Quran does not address individuals. All its injunction (and laws) are addressed to the Muslim ‘Ummah’ as a whole. Thus it is said:

Wakathalika jaAAalnakum ommatan wasatan…..(2/143)

“We have made of you an ‘Ummah’ centrally placed (in the worlk community).”

It means that Muslim ‘Ummah’ is equi-distant from other nations of the world, neither inclined towards nor disinclined towards another. Thus Muslim Ummah is an international body. Again the Quran says:

Kuntum khayra ommatin okhrijat lilnnasi….(3/110)

“You are the best of Ummah made for the benefit of humanity”.

SECTARIANISM – The development of ideological difference amongst the ‘Ummah’ and its division into sects is un-Islamic. The Quran has declared categorically:

Wala takoonoo mina almushrikeena (30/31)

“ (Look: After you become Muslim) be not among those who become Mushrik”.

Who are these people whom the Quran calls ‘Mushrik’ :

Mina allatheena farraqoo deenahum…….(30/32)

“Those who split up their ‘Deen’ (The Quranic Social Order) and become divided into sects (forming cleavage in the Islamic Society).”

And after they become divided:

Kullu hizbin bima ladayhim farihoona (30/32)

“Each sect is obsessed with its own view of it,”

The Quran has openly declared that such people are absolutely cut off from Allah and His Rasool (PBUH):

Inna allatheena farraqoo deenahum wakanoo shiyaAAan lasta minhum fee shay-in (6/159)

“And those who create differences in the social order prescribed by Allah and divide themselves into sects, (O Rasool!) you have noting to do with them.”


Innama almu/minoona ikhwatun (49/10)

“The believers are but one brotherhood.”

To create difference amongst themselves on the basis of race, language and locality etc., is to go against the teachings of the Quran. The believers must avoid it and live with mutual love and cooperation. If dispute arises amongst two people, it is the duty of those around them to get their differences amicably settled:

Faaslihoo bayna akhawaykum (49/10)

“So make peace and reconciliation between your two (contending) brothers.”

The process of reconciliation must be accomplished with justice. And if anybody disobeys the settlement reached on the basis of justice, he must be checked, even if it requires force to do so.

HOW TO GET RID OF SECTARIANISM? – Allah Almighty has ordained that the believers must follow the Quran only, leaving all the man-made ideas and false beliefs:

WaiAAtasimoo bihabli Allahi jameeAAan wala tafarraqoo (3/103)

“And hold fast all together, by the rope (the Quran) which Allah (stretches out for you) and be not divided amongst yourselves.”

It means that you only follow that way life which Allah has laid down for you. You must test all your beliefs and laws on the basis of the Quran. All that is in consonance with the Quranic teachings is right and all that goes against it is wrong. You must call yourself a ‘Muslim’ because that is the name prescribed for you by Allah.:

Huwa sammakumu almuslimeena…… (22/78)

“It is He Who has named you Muslims.”

ISLAMIC SOCIAL ORDER – The practical way of achieving Muslim Brotherhood is by establishing a social order in which the code of life is the Quran. In this social order the Millat shall chose its own representatives who in turn shall choose, the one who is the best among them, their ‘Ameer’ or leader. The ‘Ameer’ shall enforce the Quranic laws, injunctions and permanent values of the Quran; and also, at the same time, shall enforce bylaws in consonance with the existing circumstances, after mutual consultation. The rest of the ‘Millat; shall obey the laws enforced by the ‘Ameer’. That is what is called an Islamic Social Order. This social order shall be applicable to the entire Millat but a beginning can be made at the lower levels: for example in localities inside a city, gradually rising up to the level of the city and further rising from city level to State level. Such a social order shall enable the voice of each individual to be heard at the highest level; and at the same time shall allow the orders enforced by the highest authority, to reach individuals, at the laws level, who shall thus be bound down to the Quranic guidance.

NO PARTIES – In this social order there shall be no parties. The whole Millat shall be a single party, one compact society with the Quran as their code of life.

THE WORLD MUSLIMS – When this social order rises upto the entire Muslim Millat living in different parts of the world, then there shall be one center for the entire Muslim world, with one code of life.

This is the social order ordained by the Quran for world Muslims and the same was put into practice by the Rasool (PBUH)

To establish such a social order is termed as “obedience to Allah and His Rasool (P.B.U.H.)” and its organisation has been repeatedly stressed by the Quran. This is what is required to be done at present. There is no other way which can lead to one compact ‘Ummah.

FOR HUMANITY AS A WHOLE –– The social order, described above shall embrace the entire Muslim world, Accordingly, every Muslim is a member of Ummah (the Muslim community of the world). For administrative purposes, however, the world Muslim community can be divided into sub-communities living in different parts of the world, but with one center and one code of life prescribed by the Quran.

Thus the basis of an Islamic Social Order is obedience to the Quran and a practical shape shall be given to it by mutual consultation. That, in fact, is the aim of Haj congregation, where Muslims from world over gather for mutual consultation to give a practical shape to their programme.

But it must be kept in mind that although this social order shall apply to the world

Muslims, its benefits shall be available to the humanity as a whole. It shall devise ways and  means to fulfil the needs of all human beings, as well as to develop their potentialities. Thus it shall encircle the entire human world. That is how the Quran leads towards the formation of one world-community in which the development of all human beings shall be the responsibility of the Islamic Social Order. The Holy Quran stresses the point that such an organisation must come into existence. People of the world have begun to think in this direction and to feel the necessity of such an organisation. This, however, can come into being only on the basis of the Quran.

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Islamic Way of Living: Family Life – Dr. Sayed Abdul Wadud

Although family life holds a prominent place in the social living of man but in an Islamic Society it is specially important. The shape which the Quran wants to give to the human society in general, begins from home. Accordingly a home holds a society in miniature form which presents a model for an Islamic Social Order.

RESPONSIBILITY OF AN ELDER MEMBER —  According to the Quran, it is the responsibility of an elder to save his family members from the consequences of going the wrong way, as much as he saves himself i.e., he should protect their life and property and not allow them to indulge in bad manners. Thus it is said:

Qoo anfusakum waahleekum naran (66/6)

” O you who believes! Save yourself and your families from a fire.”

Described above is the responsibility of a family elder. On the other hand, the responsibility of juniors is to do good deeds, try to reform each other and avoid the creation of inequality amongst themselves.

Note: The word (اَهليكم) in the verse (66:6) includes family members and also your other companions.


The most close relationship, in a family, is that of a husband and a wife. The Quran Attaches great importances to it. If they are happily related to one another, the life of a family is a paradise. On the other hand, if their mutual relationship is bad, the family life becomes a hell:

Khalaqa lakum min anfusikum azwajan litaskunoo ilayha wajaAAala baynakum mawaddatan warahmatan (30/21)

“That He created from you mates from among yourselves that you may live in tranquility and made between you mutual attraction and means of mutual development of potentialities.”

Thus a good family is one where love and feelings of goodwill exists between the husband and his wife, and tranquility prevails all around in the family members and where they are all a source of consolation and sweatnes to one another:

Rabbana hab lana min azwajina wathurriyyatina qurrata aAAyunin (25/74)

“Our Rabb”! Grant unto us wives and offsprings who will be the comfort of our eyes.”

MARRIAGE –– The Quran guides you t o marry a woman of your choices the one whom you likes:

Fainkihoo ma taba lakum mina alnnisa-i (4/3)

“Marry women (of your choice) who look pleasant to you (in all respects).”

MARRIAGE OF A GIRL — Both the boy and the girly must be adults at the time of marriage and the consent of both is necessary.

Nobody has got the right to marry a girl without her consent:

La yahillu lakum an tarithoo alnnisaa karhan (4/19)

“O ye who believe! You are forbidden to inherit women against their will.”

DIVISION OF LABOUR –– A man and a woman are physically different from each other, by birth. The wife who gives birth to children is mainly responsible for their upbringing and this takes much of her time. Thus to earn the living Becomes the responsibility of the husband:

Alrrijalu qawwamoona AAala alnnisa (4/34)

“Men are the protectors and maintainers of women”.

Thus the difference in the responsibilities of a man and a woman arises out o their physical and biological difference. It by no means follows that man is superior to woman.


waAAashiroohunna bialmaAAroofi fa-in karihtumoohunna faAAasa an takrahoo shay-an wayajAAala Allahu feehi khayran katheeran (4/19)

“Living with them (your wives) on a footing of kindness and equity, for if you take a dislike to them, it may be that you dislike a thing and Allah brings about through it a great deal of good.”

Thus man has been advised here, to live with kindness to his wife, but if ever there occurs a point of disagreement between them, it must be borne humbly and one should not get infuriated forthwith. May be that a thing one dislikes, is in fact beneficial for him.

As stated earlier, a man and a woman are equally worthy of respect. Neither a man is superior to woman by virtue of being a man, nor a woman is inferior to a man by virtue of being a woman. Both of them are the wheels of the same cart. That is what is meant by the word (زوج)

Note:- When it is said that to earn livelihood is the duty of a husband, so as to enable the wife to take proper care of the children, it does not mean that a woman is forbidden to work under all circumstances. As a matter of necessity, neither man nor woman are forbidden to do so by fair means.

(2)       CHILDREN

To upbring their children is the foremost duty of the parents. Carelessness about their feeding, their health, their education and their upbringing is equivalent to their murder:

Qad khasira allatheena qataloo awladahum (6/140)

“Surely they are the losers who slay their children.”

But remember that to acquire wealth by unfair means, so that children may spend lavishly or for building properties for them, is a great crime. Such wives and children who compel men to earn wealth by unfair means are their enemies:

Inna min azwajikum waawladikum AAaduwwan lakum faihtharoohum (64/14)

“Truly, among your wives and children are (some that are) enemies.”

LAWFUL LIVELIHOOD — Thus you must spend, on yourselves as well as on your wives and children, wealth earned by lawful means only, so as to maintain their health education and upbringing.

(3)       PARENTS

BEHAVE WELL WITH PARENTS — The parents look after their children at a time when they are not able to earn their livelihood. But gradually the parents reach the age when they themselves cannot earn anything. It becomes incumbent on the offsprings to behave well with the parents and make good their deficiency:

Wabialwalidayni ihsanan (6/152)

“Treat your parents with kindness.”

Old people become nervous, irritable and begin to behave like children. These acts are not voluntary but only are due to effects of old age. Thus old people should not be rebuked for their acts but treated gently:

Fala taqul lahuma offin wala tanharhuma waqul lahuma qawlan kareeman  Waikhfid lahuma janaha alththulli mina alrrahmati waqul rabbi irhamhuma kama rabbayanee sagheeran (17/23-24)

“Say not to them a word of contempt, nor rebuke them but address them with respectful words. And out of kindness lower to them the wing of humility and say: My Rabb! Bestow on both of them your means of sustenance, as the did care for me when I was a child.”

As long as a child is small. He must follow the guidance of his parents because he is unable to distinguish between his own gain and loss. But when he reaches adult age and becomes capable of distinguishing between good and bad, then he must decide his own affairs. He might discuss matters with his parents, but make his own decisions, because, as the Quran says, their wisdom declines in old age. The parents should not interfere in the matters of their children after they become adults.

(4)       ANCESTORS

OBEDIENCE TO ANCESTORS – – We must be respectful to our ancestors but should not follow blindly what the had said in the past. The authority in all matters is the Holy Quran and not the sayings of human beings. All sayings attributed to ancestors must be checked up in the light of the Quran. All that is in consonance with the Quranic teachings is correct and anything that goes against it is wrong. The Quran says:

Tilka ommatun qad khalat laha ma kasabat walakum ma kasabtum wala tus-aloona AAamma kano yaAAmaloona (2/134)

” Those are the people who have passed away. The shall reap the fruits of what they did and you what you do. You shall not be asked about what they used to do.”

The Quran says that is how the non-believers behaves:

Wa-itha qeela lahumu ittabiAAoo ma anzala Allahu qaloo bal nattabiAAu ma alfayna AAalayhi abaana…(2/170)

“When it is said to them, ‘FOLLOW what Allah has revealed’; They say: ‘Nay! We shall follow the ways of our fathers”.

It means they are determined to follow the ways of their forefathers, even if they go against human intellect or even if they go against the Quran. This is a wrong attitude. We must decide everything under the guidance of the Quran and avoid all that goes against it, even if it had been practiced for a long time in the past.

(5)       RELATIVES

The Holy Quran has ordained a good behaviour not only with parents but also with relatives:

Wabialwalidayni ihsanan wathee alqurba (2/83)

“Treat with kindness your parents and kindred”.

Man inspite of his liking for wealth, must render monetary help to the kindred when required.

(6)       EMPLOYEES

Good behaviour is ordained not only with the parents and relatives but also with those who work under you:

Wabialwalidayni ihsanan …… wama malakat aymanukum (4/36)

“Do good to your parents and those under your command.”

But it is also incumbent on an employee to work diligently and honestly:

Inna khayra mani ista/jarta alqawiyyu al-ameenu (28/26)

“Truly the best of men for you to employ is the (man) who is strong and trustworthy.”

(7)       NEIGHBOURS

You must also render kind treatment to your neighbours, who may be your relatives or otherwise,

Wabialwalidayni ihsanan …. waaljari thee alqurba waaljari aljunubi (4/36)

“And do good to your parents — and to neighbours who are near and neighbours who are strangers.”

As stated earlier in Chapter 4, do not enter the house of neighbours without permission and turn back, if permission is not given and do not take it ill.

(8)       FRIENDS

Render kind treatment to your friends as well:

Wabialwalidayni ihsanan …. waalssahibi bialjanbi (4/36)

” And kind treatment to the parents — and the companions by your side.”

But make friends only with those people who agree with you ideologically and who are gentlemen. As a matter of principle you must keep it in mind that person who is adverse to the Quranic ideology, shall never be friendly towards you:

La yattakhithi almu/minoona alkafireena awliyaa min dooni almu/mineena (3/28)

” Let not the believers take, for friends or helpers, unbelievers rather than believers.”

Even if they are your parents or brothers:-

La tattakhithoo abaakum wa-ikhwanakum awliyaa ini istahabboo alkufra AAala al-eemani (9/23)

” Take not your protectors, your fathers and your brothers if they love disbelief rather than belief.”

Thus real relationship is that of ideology; blood relation is nothing as compared to it. But as stated earlier, justice and kindness must prevail even when you deal with unbelievers. Never be unjust to anybody, may he be a believer or an un-believer.

(9)       ORPHANS

It is of utmost importance to look after and cherish those who are left alone in a society and there is nobody to take care of the. According to the Holy Quran nations which do not do so, are doomed:

Kalla bal la tukrimoona alyateema (89/17)

” Nay! (This humiliation comes) that you honour not the orphans.”

It means that you should not only take care of the orphans by also honour them, as if you honour your own children and relatives. You should never look down upon them:

Faamma alyateema fala taqhar (93/9)

” Therefore treat not the orphans with harshness.”

It should never come into their minds that they are being fed on charity. Their food, dress and upbringing should be managed in such a way, as if they are own children. In case they own some property it must be looked after carefully and when they reach adult age, it must be returned to them honestly:

Wala taqraboo mala alyateemi illa biallatee hiya ahsanu hatta yablugha ashuddahu (6/152)

” And come not near the orphan’s property, except to improve it, until he attains the age of full strength.”

Note:- The word (يتيم) does not only mean an ‘orphan’, anybody who is left alone in the society is termed ‘Yateem’ by the Holy Quran.

(10)     NEEDY

The Quran does not only ordain kind treatment to orphans but also to all those who are (مساكين) needy.

Wabialwalidayni ihsanan ……….. waalmasakeeni (2/83)

” Treat with kindness your parents ….. and those in need.”

As stated earlier, a portion of the earnings of a Muslim belongs to those who are unable to meet their daily requirements of life or those who are not physically fit to earn:

Wafee amwalihim haqqun lilssa-ili waalmahroomi (51/19)

“And in their wealth is the right of (the needy), those who ask for it and those who (for some reasons) are prevented (from asking).”

It means that although they are not physically fit to earn, yet their feelings of self respect prevents them from asking for help.

The Islamic Social Order demands that the necessities of life of any individual in the society do not remain unfulfilled. The on who possesses more than his needs must pass it on to those who are needy. The, the Quran ordains the believers not to look down upon those who are in need:

Waamma alssa-ila fala tanhar (93/10)

” Do not drive away (with contempt) the one who asks for fulfillment of his needs.”

BEGGARS — But, on the other hand, we find so many healthy and stout beggars wandering about here and t here, even entering houses without permission., These are not the people who come under the heading (سائل) needy. The Quran has clearly described those who are in fact needy:

Yahsabuhumu aljahilu aghniyaa mina alttaAAaffufi taAArifuhum biseemahum la yas-aloona alnnasa ilhafan (2/273)

” The ignorant think, because of their modesty, that they are free from want. You shall know them by their (unfailing) mark. They beg not importunately from all and sundry.”

These are the people whose needs must by fulfilled, but not those of professional beggars, who form a class of idle and disrespectful people.

On the other hand, to fulfill the needs o those who deserve, must not be made a matter of show. Remember that to, do so, is a duty imposed upon you by Allah:

La tubtiloo sadaqatikum bialmanni waal-atha kaallathee yunfiqu malahu ri-aa alnnasi (2/264)

“O you who believe! Render not vain your charity, by reminders of your generosity or by injury – like the one who spends his substance to be seen by people.”

As compared to this act of show, it is better to refuse it by kind words (2:263)

(11)     WAY-FARERS

The believers are required, not only to meet the requirements of those needy persons who live nearer to them but even those way-farers whose real needs become blocked during travel:

Wabialwalidayni ihsanan …….. waibni alssabeeli (4/36)

“And do good to parents ……. the way-farer (who are needy).

RIGHT OF A WAY RARER– A needy way-farer has got as much right on your substance as your relatives. Because, according to the Holy Quran, the entire humanity belongs to one brotherhood, all people are the branches of the same tree. One may belong to your own locality or country he may be Muslim or a non-Muslim, he may be your relative or not, if he is really in need of your help, you must help him. This help is not by way of charity but it is a matter of their right:

Waati tha alqurba haqqahu waalmiskeena waibna alssabeeli (17/26)

“And render to the kindred their due rights as (also) to those in want and to the way-farer.”

For all that is paid to those in want, the work ‘charity’ is generally used. The one who pays often feels himself superior to the one who is paid ad the latter not only feels himself inferior to the donor but is at the same time looked down upon by others.

The Quran, however, changed the entire concept of alms-giving when it ordained that the poor and needy have a right in the wealth of the rich. The wealthy pays to the poor only that which is due to him and the poor receives it as a matter of right. Thus neither the donor feels proud of it, nor the recipient feels humiliated. But it must be borne in mind that these injunctions of the Quran are meant for a period when an Islamic Social Order has not yet been fully established, because after that it becomes the responsibility of the Islamic State to fulfil the wants of the individuals.

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Islamic Way of Living: Mutual Contact – Dr. Sayed Abdul Wadud


It is customary among all nations of the world, that when two persons meet they greet each other.

There are different ways of greeting. Hindus when they meet each other, utter the words (ىﮔ بند)”Bandgi” which means ” I am your slave”. They also meet with folded hands or touching the feet of elders which shows, ” I am lower than the dust under your feet. Englishmen when the meat each other say “good morning” or “good evening” which means I wish a happy morning (or evening) for you.

MUSLIM GREETINGS — On the other hand, Muslims says (السلام عليكم) when they meet each other. One utters “ASSALMO ALAIKUM” and the other responds by saying “WA ALAIKUM-US-SALAM”. The words mean ” May you be in perfect peace”, or “May you get proper nourishment (of your personality)”: or “if you need my help any time, I am at your service. Thus the word (السلام عليكم) expresses the very object of Islam and is a noble and satisfying expression of mutual goodwill and cooperation. That is why the Quran Says:

Wa-itha huyyeetum bitahiyyatin fahayyoo bi-ahsana minha aw ruddooha (4/86)

“When a (courteous) greeting is offered to you, meet it with a greeting still more courteous, or (at least) of equal courtesy.”

GREETING TO YOUR FAMILY MEMBERS — This greeting is not limited to the people whom you meet outside, but you also must greet your family members when you enter your house:

Fa-itha dakhaltum buyootan fasallimoo AAala anfusikum tahiyyatan min AAindi Allahi mubarakatan tayyibatan (24/61)

“But when you enter houses, salute each other — a greeting of blessing and sweatness from Allah.”


Allah cooands () “Ihsan” in society. “Ihsan” means beauty and proportion. In a thing that is proportionate, all its constituents are just appropriate, neither more, nor less; and where there is proportion, there is beauty;  where as a thing that is disproportionate looks ugly. A Muslim is one who maintains proportion in his own self and also in his dealings with other people. Thus “Ihsan” means a condition where an individual (inspite of his best efforts) lags behind, his deficiency is made good by others, to restore the disturbed proportion of the society. For example, a person who has become weak on account of illness or old age and is thus unable to fulfil his wants, to make good his deficiency is “Ihsan”. According to the Quran a Muslim is one who does “Ihsan”:

Wabialwalidayni ihsanan wabithee alqurba waalyatama waalmasakeeni waaljari thee alqurba waaljari aljunubi waalssahibi bialjanbi waibni alssabeeli wama malakat aymanukum (4/36)

“And do “Ihsan” to parents, kinsfolk, orphans and those in need, neighbours who are near (relatives) neighbours who are strangers, the companions by your side; the wayfarer (you meet) and those serving under you.” (4/36)

It means a Muslim is one who does “Ihsan” to all whom he comes in to contact.

As regards “Ihsan”, there is a point worth remembering  — it is an everyday experience that when somebody helps a need person, he begins to think that person to be his subservient and expects the recipient to act according to his whims and wishes. If at any time he does not act according to his liking, he is labelled as “Ihsan Faramosh”, the one who is forgetful of “Ihsan”. This is entirely against the teachings of the Quran. The Quran says that you help a needy person because it is your duty to do so. That person remains no more under obligation to you. Even such an idea should not come across your mind. The Quran says that you should help a need person with the expectation:

La nureedu minkum jazaan wala shukooran (76/9)

“No reward do we desire from you, nor thanks.”


Nobody is able to accomplish all his affairs single-handed. Off and on, one needs help of his fellow beings. This act of mutual help is called () “T’aawan” or cooperation. But the question arises whether one should render help to everybody he comes across or only to a certain type of people? For example, on usurps the rights of another person. Shall we help the wrong doer or the one who is wronged? It is apparent that we should help the latter. The holly Quran has laid down the principle:

WataAAawanoo AAala albirri waalttaqwa wala taAAawanoo AAala al-ithmi waalAAudwani (5/2)

“You cooperate with one another in matters of (ِبرّ) broadmindedness and (تقوى) matters consistent with the Divine laws and do not cooperate in matters of (اثم) sin and (عدوان) enmity.”

The word (ِبرّ) above means matters of righteousness and broadmindedness and (تقوى) means to live a life in consistence with the Divine laws and injunctions ordained by Allah. The word (اثم) is used for a camel who gets tired or remains behind the herd. Thus any act which retard the human progress is called (اثم). The word (عدوان) means ‘Rebellion’ i.e. to act against the Divine laws and whose acts are more and more useful for humanity and do not help those who rebel against the Divine laws and whose actions serve as an obstacle to human progress. In other words help others in matters declared to be good by the Quran but not in matters declared to be bad therein.


Mutual consultation is described by the Holy Quran as a specific act of Muslims:

Waamruhum shoora baynahum  (42/38)

“Who conduct their affairs by mutual consultation.”

The Holy Quran ordains that of every affair you come across, you must get a thorough knowledge of it:

Wala taqfu ma laysa laka bihi Aailmun (17/36)

“And pursue not that of which you have no knowledge.”

And before reaching a decision you must consult those who know more about it, so that all aspects of a matter become clearer to you. But such consultation does not include matters of sin and enmity (58:9). It is limited to matters that are useful to humanity and are consistent with the principles laid down in the Quran.

CONTACT WITH OTHERS — It is apparent that mutual consultation is possible only if one behaves politely with others. That is why it is said:

Wala tusaAAAAir khaddaka lilnnasi (31/8)

“And turn not your cheek in scorn towards people.”


It is highly important that when you make a promise with somebody it must be fulfilled at all costs:

Waawfoo bialAAahdi inna alAAahda kana mas-oolan (17/36)

“And fulfil every engagement for (every) engagement shall be equired into.”

CONTRACT — Similarly when you make a contract with other nations you fulfil it:

Awfoo bialAAuqoodi (5/1)

“O You who believe! Fulfil (all) obligations.”

Human affairs run smoothly if individuals as well as nations are faithful to one another. Otherwise there shall be utter confusion all around. Therefore all promises and all contacts must be fulfilled. But one must keep in mind that this fulfilling of obligations should not remain confined only to big matters. This also applies to small every-day affairs. A promise id a promise whether it concerns a big matter of small. For example, if you tell somebody, “I shall come to see you at 4 P.M. “, you must keep to it strictly. On the other hand if you are not able to do so for some unavoidable reason, you must inform the person concerned about it.

(6)       LOAN

In human life occasions do arise when one falls short of something or of the money with which to buy that thing and is no in a position to fulfil his wants on his own. On such occasion he needs help from his fellow beings. This help can be rendered in two ways (1) one who possesses the required article or surplus money with him may hand it over to the needy without any demand for return. This is by way of ‘Ihsan’ as described earlier, (2) Or one may give the required article or the amount with a promise for return. This is called loan and it must always be brought into writing. The Quran says:

Itha tadayantum bidaynin ila ajalin musamman faoktuboohu (2/282)

“O you who believe! When you deal with each other, in transactions involving future obligations in a fixed period of time, reduce them to writing.”

PLEDGE – – But if an occasion arises that you do not find a scribe to turn the loan into writing, in such a security deposit:

Wa-in kuntum AAala safarin walam tajidoo katiban farihanun maqboodatun (2/283)

“And when you are on a journey and cannot find a scribe, a pledge with possession (will serve the purpose).”

PROMISE FOR RETURN –– A promise made for the return of loan must be fulfilled. But if the debtor is involved in a difficult position as regards repayment, in such a case, make things easy for him:

Wa-in kana thoo AAusratin fanathiratun ila maysaratin waan tasaddaqoo khayrun lakum (2/280)

“If the debtor is in a difficulty, grant him time till it is easy for him to repay. But if you remit the loan as a gift, that is the best for you.”

USURY –– But do not get back a single pie more than what you had paid to the debtor. This profiteering is termed as usury (ربو) and it has been strictly forbidden by the Quran:

Waahalla Allahu albayAAa waharrama alrriba (2/275)

“But Allah has permitted trade and forbidden usury.”

On the other hand, any earnings from the security deposit by the debtor also comes under the heading ‘Riba’.

(7)       TRADE

As stated earlier Allah has permitted trade and forbidden usury. What is Trade- To well something to somebody in lieu of money is called Trade. Both buying as well as selling come under it. The question arises as to how much profit one should get in a bargain. In this the holy Quran has laid down the principle:

Amanoo la ta/kuloo amwalakum baynakum bialbatili illa an takoona tijaratan AAan taradin minkum (4/29)

“Eat not up your property among yourselves in vanities by let there be amongst you trade by mutual good will.”

Thus the profit must be settled amongst the parties. The right way to do it is that the price of every article should be labelled over it and the rate of profit be fixed up by the government. If it has not been done so, then the profit should be settled between the purchaser and the shopkeeper by mutual good will. Nor the seller should ever think of exploiting the purchaser, nor the purchaser should try to usurp the genuine profit of the seller. That is trade by mutual good will. A profit that exceeds the measure is disallowed by the Quran:

Waan laysa lil-insani illa ma saAAa (53/39)

“That man can have nothing but what he strives for.”

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES — For this the holy Quran has said:

Waawfoo alkayla itha kiltum wazinoo bialqistasi almustaqeemi (17/35)

“Give full measure when you measure and weigh with a balance that is straight.”

So that everybody should get what is due to him without any obstacle.

(8)       JUSTICE

You might have come across a camel or an ass, carrying load. If the load is equal on both sides, the goods shall remain safe and is shall be easy for the animal to carry. This is justice, which means a load neither tilted to one side nor to the other but just balanced. Thus a decision in which neither one party gets favour nor the other party is deprived of what is due to him is called (عدل) justice. The Quran attaches great importance to it.

IAAdiloo huwa aqrabu lilttaqwa (5/8)

“Do justice because by so doing you act according to the Divine laws.”

JUSTICE TO ENEMY — The Quran ordains to do justice not only in a neutral atmosphere but even to do justice to those who are your enemies:

Wala yajrimannakum shanaanu qawmin AAala alla taAAdiloo iAAdiloo huwa aqrabu lilttaqwa (5/8)

“Let not the hatred of others make you swerve from doing justice. You must do justice. That is nearer to the path Allah leads to.”

Note:- ‘Adl’ not only means justice in a court of law but it is also incumbent on Muslims to do justice in every day affairs.

(9)       TRUST

A thing or property which is entrusted to somebody for a particular period is called (امانت) or Trust. The ownership of the thing entrusted remains with the original owner. Thus when the owner wants to get back the thing entrusted, it must be returned without any obstacle:

Inna Allaha ya/murukum an tu-addoo al-amanati ila ahliha (4/58)

“Verily Allah commands you to render back the trusts to whom they are due.”

The Trust is not only confined to a material object or money; if, on the other hand, a man tells something in confidence to another man, that also is a Trust, because here on person depended on the other because he considered him to be reliable. (But one must be careful that the thing told is no one of malpractice or mal-intention.)

RESPONSIBILITY — Similarly a work that is entrusted to you by another person is also a (امانت)Trust, which must be fulfilled. The trustee may be a Prime Minister or a peon, he must fulfil his responsibility faithfully.

NATIONAL  TRUST — A Trust may be an ordinary deposit. On the other hand the reins of power being the biggest and the most sacred trust that human beings can entrust to their fellow beings, it is imperative that those who are given power must be most trustworthy and most fit persons, those who are capable of deciding the human affairs with full justice and can thus fulfil the responsibilities laid upon them.

On the other hand, it also implies that to entrust reins of power to undeserving persons means betraying the national trust: and thus the verse:

Inna Allaha ya/murukum an tu-addoo al-amanati ila ahliha (4/58)

“Allah commands you to render back the trusts to those whom they are due.”

Also applies to this wrongful act.

Note:- It is a common practice that a person tells you something.. against some body, for further communication; but at the same time asks you to make sure that his name is not disclosed in this connection. It is a bad practice. Tell him that you will not cooperate with him in this matter and that when he says something against somebody, he must have the courage to say it openly; and that this very thing that he wishes to keep his name secret means he is telling lies.

(10)     EVIDENCE

DO NOT HIDE TESTIMONY — A certain matter can be decided justly only if a person who know anything about it comes forward and truthfully describes its details. This is called Evidence or Testimony. ( Testimony means statement made under oath). The holy Quran has strictly ordained to give a true statement:

Wala taktumoo alshshahadata (2/283)

“Conceal not evidence.”


Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoo koonoo qawwameena bialqisti shuhadaa lillahi (4/135)

“O you who believe! Stand out firmly for justice, as withness to Allah.”

It means that you should not come as a witness to some party but as a withness to Allah. State firmly, openly and exactly, what you have seen, neither more nor less, nor in favour of somebody, nor against some body.

Walaw AAala anfusikum awi alwalidayni waal-aqrabeena in yakun ghaniyyan aw faqeeran faAllahu awla bihima (4/135)

“(Stick to justice) even if your statement goes against yourself, or your parents, or your kin, and whether it be (against) rich or poor, for Allah can best protect both.”

Fala tattabiAAoo alhawa an taAAdiloo (4/135)

“Follow not the lusts (of your hearts) lest you swerve.”

It means that you should never say things which are intriguing and have got double meaning. If you do such a thing, you can hide it from the people around you but not from Allah, as he knows, everything.

Wa-in talwoo aw tuAAridoo fa-inna Allaha kana bima taAAmaloona khabeeran (4/135)

“And if you distort (justice) or decline to do justice, verily Allah is well acquainted with all that you do.”

The Holy Quran thus lays great stress on a just statement. But it by no means follow that you should disclose facts only when you are called upon to do so, by a court of justice; but you should state all that you know, truly and fearlessly, even for matters outside the court.

FALSE STATEMENT — Never give false statement. A prominent aspect of the believers is:

Waallatheena la yashhadoona alzzoora (25/72)

“(They are) those who witness no falsehood.”

(11)     BRIBERY

As stated earlier, it is a bad thing to acquire wealth by unfair means but the worst form of ill gotten wealth is Bribery. It kills justice and usurps other people’s rights. It does wrong to innocent persons and forms the basis of a wrongful society. The Quran says :

Wala ta/kuloo amwalakum baynakum bialbatili watudloo biha ila alhukkami lita/kuloo fareeqan min amwali alnnasi bial-ithmi (2/188)

“Do not eat up your property amongst yourselves with vanity. Nor use it as bait for judges with the intent that you may devour wrongfully and knowingly other people’s property.”

Thus Quran not only prohibits taking bribery but also prohibits offering bribery. A complainant should file a suit of law only to get his right, a withness should give a true statement and the judge should dispense full justice. The Question of offering or accepting bribery does not arise. One who does so is a criminal in an Islamic Social Order.



Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoo la tadkhuloo buyootan ghayra buyootikum hatta tasta/nisoo watusallimoo AAala ahliha (24/27)

“O you who believe! Enter not houses other than your own, until you have asked permission and saluted those in them.”

And if permission is not obtainable:

Fa-in lam tajidoo feeha ahadan fala tadkhulooha hatta yu/thana lakum wa-in qeela lakumu irjiAAoo fairjiAAoo huwa azka lakum (24/28)

” And if you find nobody in the house, still enter not until permission is given to you: if you are asked to go back, go back, for it is a matter of purity for you.”

On the other hand in such houses which are not residential and where you keep some articles of use e.g., a godown, you are not required to seek permission:

Laysa AAalaykum junahun an tadkhuloo buyootan ghayra maskoonatin feeha mataAAun lakum waAllahu yaAAlamu ma tubdoona wama taktumoona (24/29)

“It is no fault on your part to enter houses not used for living or which serve some other purpose for you, and Allah has knowledge of what you reveal and what you conceal.”

It means that if, for example, the godown in which you enter is a common one and you are all alone while entering, an idea of being dishonest should never come to your mind.


Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoo itha qeela lakum tafassahoo fee almajalisi faifsahoo yafsahi Allahu lakum wa-itha qeela onshuzoo faonshuzoo (58/11)

“O you who believe! When you are told to make room in the assemblies (spread out and) make room: (ample) room will Allah provide for you. And when you are told to rise up, rise up.”

INDECENT ACTIVITIES — are prohibited while sitting in an assembly. People of Lot committed such indecent acts. Lot said to his people:

Wata/toona fee nadeekumu almunkara (29/29)

“And you practice wickedness (even) in you councils”?

PERMISSION TO LEAVE– Believers when they get together on a matter that requires collective action, do not leave the place of their gathering unless they are permitted to do so:

Lam yathhaboo hatta yasta/thinoohu (24/62)

“They do not depart until the have asked for leave.”

In short, the etiquette required, while attending an assembly, is to sit in a manner that you make room for others, commit no indecent act, do not indulge in an unworthy talk and when the assembly is dispersed, you rise up and depart. When you are sent for, for a particular business, do no leave unless permitted.


Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoo la tadkhuloo buyoota alnnabiyyi illa an yu/thana lakum ila taAAamin ghayra nathireena inahu walakin itha duAAeetum faodkhuloo fa-itha taAAimtum faintashiroo wala musta/niseena lihadeethin (33/53)

“O you who believe! Enter not the houses of the Nabi unless you are invited on a meal, (do not go so early as) to wait for its preparation. When you are invited, enter (at the appointed time) and disperse when your meal ends. Linger not for conversation.”

Although these may be considered as small matters, yet it is important to observe them, so as to create an atmosphere of pleasant mutual relationship, displaying beauty and discipline.


ENVY — Do not envy those who hold a better position than yourself. For example, if a man is more learned and brilliant than yourself, or a person who earns more than yourself by putting in more labour and has better living standard, or the one whose children are kept more clean and tidy, you do not grudge against him but work hard so that you may also reach the same standard. To envy others is not an Islamic way of living.

Am yahsudoona alnnasa AAala ma atahumu Allahu min fadlihi (4/53)

“O do they envy mankind for what Allah has given them of His bounty.”

BACK BITE — Back biting is prohibited; which means do not say anything in somebody’s absence, which you would not like to say in his presence. In the words of the Holy Quran it is like eating the flesh of the dead body of your brother:

Ayuhibbu ahadukum an ya/kula lahma akheehi maytan fakarihtumoohu (49/12)

“Would anybody like to eat the flesh of his dead brother? Nay, you would abhor it. (Then how would you like to backbite people in their absence).


Wala tajassasoo  (49/12)

” Do not try to explore each other’s secrets.”


Wala tanabazoo bial-alqabi (49/11)

“Do not call others by nick-names.”

Wala talmizoo anfusakum (49/11)

“Nor find faults t defame one another.”

DO NOT BROADCAST EVIL —  If you are in the know of somebody’s defects, do not try to broadcast it with a view to defame him. However, if a person has committed excess against you, you may seek its remedy in some more, appropriate manner:

La yuhibbu Allahu aljahra bialssoo-i mina alqawli illa man thulima (4/148)

” Allah loves not that evil should be noised abroad in public speech, except where injustice have been done.”

RIDICULE — Do not ridicule others with a view to defame them:

Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoo la yaskhar qawmun min qawmin (49/11)

“O you who believe! Let not some men among you ridicule others: it may be that the (latter) are better than the (former).”


Inna allatheena yarmoona almuhsanati alghafilati almu/minati luAAinoo fee alddunya waal-akhirati walahum AAathabun Aaatheemun (24/23)

“Those who slander chaste, indiscreet believing women, are cursed in this life and in the hereafter.”

This verse points out that virtuous women are sometimes indiscreet because of they think of no evil. But even such innocent indiscretion lands them in difficulty because of the slanders spread out about them. These women are never aware of an impure act, nor an evil idea ever occurs to them. People who spread such slanders about them are guilt of the gravest offence.

SUSPICION — Do not suspect anybody unless you know for certain that he has committed wrong. Keep a good opinion about him and change it only when you get some concrete evidence about his bad act.

Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoo ijtaniboo katheeran mina alththanni … (49/12)

” O you who believe! Avoid suspicion as much as possible.”

RIDICULE OF DIVINE LAWS — Do not hold the laws of Allah in light esteem. If a thing is not clear to you already try to understand it carefully. If you are sitting in an assembly where such ridiculous talk about the Deen of Allah is going on and it is beyond you the check it up you should depart from that assembly and go there only after they have stopped it and have become engaged in other affairs.

Itha samiAAtum ayati Allahi yukfaru biha wayustahzao biha fala taqAAudoo maAAahum hatta yakhoodoo fee hadeethin ghayrihi innakum ithan mithluhum (4/140)

“When you hear the signs of Allah held in defiance and ridicule, you are not to sit with them, unless they turn to a different theme; if you did, you would be like them.

At yet at another place it is said:

Wathari allatheena ittakhathoo deenahum laAAiban…(6/70)

“Leave alone those who take their ‘Deen’ to be a mere play or amusement.”

VAIN AND CROOKED DISCUSSION — Do not indulge in vain and crooked discussion. Present your arguments intelligently, hear the opposite with a cool mind and answer gently:

OdAAu ila sabeeli rabbika bialhikmati waalmawAAithati alhasanati wajadilhum biallatee hiya ahsanu (16/125)

“Invite (all) to the ways of your Rabb with wisdom and beautiful preaching and argue with them in ways that are best and most gracious.”

If you realise that your point of view is wrong, admit forthwith and be not adamant. About believers, Quran says:

Walam yusirroo AAala ma faAAaloo wahum yaAAlamoona (3/135)

“And (they) are never obstinate in persisting knowingly (the wrong) they have done.”

ANGER — Man often commits such acts in anger, of which he feels ashamed afterwards. Thus one should keep himself under control in such a situation. Allah loves such persons:

Waalkathimeena alghaytha waalAAafeena AAani alnnasi (3/134)

” Who sublimate anger and pardon (all) men.”

Note: The usual translation of the words (كاظمين الغيظ) is ” who restrains anger”. This is not correct. The Quran instead of suppression or restraint of anger, ordains sublimation of anger, which means to transmute the energy generated by anger in to some nobler or useful activity.

PARDON — But the person who deserves pardon is the one who commits a certain bad deed unknowingly and then feels ashamed of it afterwards:

Annahu man AAamila minkum soo-an bijahalatin thumma taba min baAAdihi waaslaha faannahu ghafoorun raheemun (6/54)

“And if any of you did evil in ignorance and thereafter repented and (amended) his conduct, Allah forgives his (and thus you should also forgive him)”.

But a person who persistently causes trouble to his fellow beings and does not stop committing excess, inspite of its having been brought to his notice, such a person must receive punishment:

Wajazao sayyi-atin sayyi-atun mithluha (42/40)

“The recompense of an injury is an injury equal thereto in degree.”


Innahu la yuhibbu alththalimeena

“Allah loves not those who commit excess.”

Note:- The punishment of an offence shall be given by court of law. One should not take the law into his own hand.

(14)     SELF REFORM

SELF REFORM — It is a usual occurrence that one person instructs another, to be good, not to tell lies and not to do bad deeds etc., but at the same time he himself continues doing what he asks others not to do. It is a bad thing according to the Quran:

Ata/muroona alnnasa bialbirri watansawna anfusakum (2/44)

“Do you enjoin right conduct on the people and forget (to practice it) yourself.”

Thus primarily one should concentrate on Self-Reform. Do yourself first, of what you ask others to do. The Holy Quran says:

Lima taqooloona ma la tafAAaloona (61/2)

” Why do you say that which you do not.”

REFORM OF FELLOW BEINGS — After self-reform it becomes incumbent upon you to reform those with whom you come in contact in life. These may be your family members or your business partners, or friends or acquaintances:

Qoo anfusakum waahleekum naran (66/6)

“Save yourself and your families from fire.”

But as stated earlier, the best way to reform others, is present them your own model. But in matters of self reform one should never think that his personality has reached perfection and needs no further reform, That is wrong. God only knows how far your personality has developed:

Fala tuzakkoo anfusakum huwa aAAlamu bimani ittaqa (53/32)

“Therefore ascribe not to your personality a perfect development. He (Allah) knows best how far you have worked in consonance with the Divine laws.”

PAY ATTENTION TO A GOOD ADVICE — Often it so happens that if a certain person advises another person that he should leave so and so of his bad acts, the latter at once retorts that the former should first mend his own ways and leave so and so of his bad deeds. This is not the right attitude. If the former also does something bad he shall have to bear its consequences. The latter should only see If the advice given to him is correct or not. If it is correct he must follow the advice because that shall be for his own benefit. Any bad act on the part of one who advises shall not affect the one who is advised. However, the one who advises another person, must first of all consider if the vices that are visible to him in another person are not present in his own self. If everybody in a society follows that principle, the whole society shall become righteous.

Thus, make it a point that you should first mend your own self, then advise those nearer to you, followed by a similar good advice to others. When anybody draws your attention to a certain thing, you, must look to it whether he tells a right thing or a wrong thing. If what he says is right, you must take care to attend to your vices rather than telling the adviser that he is also bad and that you would not listen to him.

HYPOCRISY — According to the Holy Quran, the worst crime is hypocrisy. Who are the hypocrites:

Yaqooloona bi-afwahihim ma laysa fee quloobihim (3/166)

“Those who said with their lips what was not in their hearts.”

A (مومن) believer is one who openly declares what is in his heart. A (كافر) non-believer is one who does not believe in the Truth, as well as opposes it openly. He does not deceive others.

But a hypocrite is one who believes differently from what he says and thus deceives others:

YukhadiAAoona Allaha waallatheena amanoo (2/9)

“Who think they deceive Allah and those who believe.”

They act merely for outward show:

Yuraoona alnnasa (4/142)

“They do things only to be seen by others.”

That is why hypocrisy is a crime worse than disbelief, according to the Holy Quran:

Inna almunafiqeena fee alddarki al-asfali mina alnnari (4/145)

“The hypocrites will be in the lowest depths of the fire.”

The Quran says that these people, have got a diseased heart:

Fee quloobihim maradun (2/10)

“In their hearts is a disease.”

A disease that is progressive:

Fazadahumu Allahu maradan (2/10)

“And Allah has increased their disease.”

The only remedy to check this disease is that such persons should openly turn to repentance and feel ashamed of their deceiving trait, followed by mending himself with a determined mind and thus keeping to right path.

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