Category Archives: Exposition of the Holy Quran – Parwez

Exposition of the Holy Quran – G A Parwez – Tolue Islam Trust

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01. Al-Faatiha 24. AN-NOOR 47. MUHAMMAD 70. AL-MA’ÂRIJ 93. AD-DUHA
02. Al-Baqarah 25. AL-FURQÂN 48. AL-FATH 71. NÛH 94. ASH-SHARH
03. Aal-e-Imran 26. ASH-SHU’ARÂ’ 49. AL-HUJURÂT 72. AL-JINN 95. AT-TIN
04. An-Nisa 27. AN-NAML 50. QÂF. 73. AL-MUZZAMMIL 96. AL-‘ALAQ
05. Al-Maidah 28. AL-QASAS 51. AZ-ZÂRIYÂT 74. AL-MUDDASSIR 97. AL-QADR
06. Al-An’aam 29. AL-‘ANKABÛT 52. AT-TÛR 75. AL-QIYÂMAH 98. AL-BAIYINAH
07. Al-A’raaf 30. AR­RÛM 53. AN-NAJM 76. AL-INSÂN 99. AZ-ZALZALAH
08. Al-Anfaal 31. LUQMÂN 54. AL-QAMAR 77. AL-MURSALÂT 100. AL-‘ADIYÂT
09. At-Taubah 32. AS­SAJDAH 55. AR-RAHMÂN 78. AN-NABA’ 101. AL-QÂRI’AH
10. Yunus 33. AL-AHZÂB 56. AL-WÂQI’AH 79. AN-NAZI’ÂT 102. AT-TAKÂTHUR
11. Hud 34. SABA 57. AL-HADÎD 80. ABASA 103. AL-‘ASR
13. Ar-Ra’d 36. Y­SÎN 59. AL-HASHR 82. AL-INFITÂR 105. AL-FÎL
15. Al-Hijr 38. SÂD. 61. AS-SAFF 84. AL-INSHIQÂQ 107. AL-MÂ’ÛN
16. An-Nahl 39. AZ-ZUMAR 62. AL-JUMU’AH 85. AL-BURÛJ 108. AL-KAUSAR
17. Bani Isra’el 40. GHÂFIR 63. AL-MUNAFIQÛN 86. AT-TÂRIQ 109. AL-KÂFIRÛN
18. Al-Kahf 41. FUSSILAT 64. AT-TAGHÂBUN 87. AL-A’LÂ 110. AN-NASR
19. Maryam 42. ASH-SHÛRA 65. AT-TALÂQ 88. AL-GHÂSHIYAH 111. AL-LAHAB
20. Taa-Haa 43. AZ-ZUKHRUF 66. AT-TAHRÎM 89. AL-FAJR 112. AL-IKHLÂS
21. Al-Anbiya’ 44. AD-DUKHÂN 67. AL-MULK 90. AL-BALAD 113. AL-FALAQ
22. Al-Hajj 45. AL-JÂTHIYA 68. AL-QALAM 91. ASH-SHAMS 114. AN-NÂS
23. Al-Momineen 46. AL-AHQÂF 69. AL-HÂQQAH 92. AL-LAIL




List of the Quranic Surahs

01 - Al-Faatiha02 - Al-Baqarah03 - Aal-e-Imran
04 - An-Nisa’05 - Al-Ma’idah06 - Al-An’aam
07 - Al-A’raaf08 - Al-Anfaal09 - At-Taubah
10 - Yunus (Jonah)11 - Hud (Hud)12 - Yusuf (Joseph)
13 - Ar-Ra’d (Thunder)14 - Ibrahim (Abraham)15 - Al-Hijr (Al-Hijr Valley)
16 -An-Nahl17 - Bani Isra’el18 - Al-Kahf
19 - Maryam (Mary)20 - Taa-Haa21 - Al-Anbiya’
22 - Al-Hajj23 - Al-Mu’minoon24 - An-Noorn
25 - Al-Furqaan26 - Ash-Shu’ara27 - An-Naml
28 - Al-Qasas29 - Al-’Ankaboot30 - Ar-Rome
31 - Luqmaan (Luqman The Wise)32 - As-Sajdah (Prostration)n33 - Al-Ahzaab
34 - Saba’35 - Faatir36 - Yaa- Seen
37 - As-Saaffaat38 - Saad39 - Az-Zumar
40 - Al-Momin41- Ha- Meem42 - Ash-Shoora
43 - Az-Zukhruf44 - Ad-Dukhaan45 - Al-Jaathiyah
46 - Al-Ahqaaf47 - Muhammad48 - Al-Fath
49 - Al-Hujuraat50 - Qaaf51 - Az-Zariyaat
52 - At-Toor53 - An-Najm54 - Al-Qamar
55 - Ar-Rahman56 - Al-Waaqiah57 - Al-Hadeed
58 - Al-Mujadilah59 - Al-Hashr60 - Al-Mumtahanah
61 - As-Saff62 - Al-Jumu’ah63 - Al-Munafiqoon
64 - At-Taghaabun65 - At-Talaaq66 - At-Tahreem
67 - Al-Mulk68 - Al-Qalam69 - Al-Haaqqah
70 - Al-Ma’arij71 - Nuh/Nooh72 - Al-Jinn
73 - Al-Muzzammil74 - Al-Muddaththir75 - Al-Qiyaamah
76 - Ad-Dahr77 - Al-Mursalaat78 - Al-Nabaa
79 - Al-Naziaat80 - Abasa81 - At-Takweer
82 - Al-Infitaar83 - Al-Mutaffifin84 - Al-Inshiqaaq
85 - Al-Burooj86 - At-Taariq87 - Al-A’laa
88 - Al-Ghaashiyah89 - Al-Fajr90 - Al-Balad
91 - Ash-Shams92 - Al-Lail93 - Ad-Duha
94 - Al-Inshirah95 - At-Teen96 - Al-Alaq
97 - Al-Qadr98 - Al-Baiyyinah99 - Az-Zalzalah
100 - Al-Aadiyaat101 - Al-Qaari’ah102 - At-Takaathur
103 - Al-Asr104 - Al-Humazah105 - Al-Feel
106 - Quraish107 - Al-Ma’oon108 - Al-Kauthar
109 - Al-Kaafiroon110 - An-Nasr111 - Al-Lahab/Al-Masad
112 - Al-Ikhlaas113 - Al-Falaq114 - An-Naas
List of the Quranic Surah Exposition of the Holy Quran by Ghulam Ahmad Parwez Published by Tolue Islam Trust



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Exposition of the Holy Quran – 03 Surah Aal-e-Imran (G A Parwez)

Surah 03: Aal-e-Imran
(The House of Imran)

(1-2) Allah, the wise and the knowing, has said, “Allah is the sole authority in the universe and is ever-living and self-subsisting (2:255).”

(3)          “O Rasool! He has sent you this Revelation based upon truth, which will validate the claims made in previous scriptures. Allah previously sent the Torah and the Bible, which contained guidance for mankind. Now, He has sent down this book which distinguishes between right and wrong.”

(4) Those who reject this divine code will suffer grievously according to Allah’s Law of Mukafat. None can escape its grip.

(5)          There is nothing in the universe that is hidden from Allah.

(6)          With regards to creation, it is Allah who fashions you in your mothers’ wombs according to His Law of Mashiyya (plan). He is Almighty but His might is blended with wisdom.

(7) Allah has sent down this book to you, O Rasool, which includes verses of two kinds. The first kind consists of those verses, which have definite meaning and constitute the foundation of Allah’s laws.(1) Those of the second kind are figurative and explain abstract realities metaphorically. Those who tend to deviate from Allah’s path, take the figurative verses in their literal sense thereby causing discord by interpreting these verses in their own way. Allah only knows the essence of the realities, which these verses represent. Those who make the right approach to knowledge believe in the realities but can also form an idea of what they are and can perceive their significance.

These are the people who are gifted with insight (74:31).

(8-10) Their prayer is:

“O Allah! Having found the right path, may our hearts not swerve from it! Grant us means of development. You alone are our bestower. We know that at this time there are differences amongst mankind but are sure that one day all humanity will become united by following Your immutable laws. Surely, Allah never fails to fulfil His promise. Nothing shall avail those who reject Your laws, neither their wealth nor their offspring. Their end will be disastrous.”

(11) (For example) the followers of the Pharaoh and the people before them who rejected these laws suffered grievously – Allah is severe in retribution.

(12) O Rasool! Say to those who oppose your system that they will be subdued eventually and driven to jahannam which is a wretched abode.

(13) You have seen a glimpse of it (in the battle of Badar) during confrontation between two forces – one fighting for the cause of Allah and the other opposing it. The opposing force was much larger but since the Jamat-ul-Momineen were strengthened by eiman, they felt that the enemy was only twice their number. They were confident of their success which they achieved (8:44-66). In this way all those who want to have divine help, get it by following His laws.

For persons with insight, this instance illustrates that truth ultimately prevails.

(14-15) The reason for this is obvious. To those whose objective is only secular, fair-seeming is the pleasure derived from women and children, treasures of gold and silver, horses, cattle and harvest. For the believers also, these things are attractive but they have a higher goal for which, if needed, they are willing to sacrifice them. They will receive blessings from Allah in the form of evergreen gardens overflowing with streams, comfortable dwellings and companions of unstained purity. These are the rewards for conformity with the laws of Allah. And He sees all that is in (the hearts of) His people.

(16) The believers pray:

“O our Rabb! We have complete faith in Your laws which we obey. If at any time we falter, we seek protection from the ill-effects of our shortcomings (2:286, 53:32), and keep us safe from the suffering of the fire.”

(17) These are the people who are steadfast during trials, who validate their beliefs in action, who obey Allah’s laws with meekness and who spend their wealth for the cause of Allah. Before they initiate any programme they ensure that they have sufficient resources and means of protection (from the enemy and also to feel safe and comfortable in their hearts).

(18) As mentioned earlier (3:2), there is no authority in the universe except His and the first evidence is the correct concept about Allah Himself (that if there had been more than one authority, there would have been chaos in the universe 21:22), thereafter the evidence is provided by all the heavenly forces, whose working testifies to the fact that the entire universe is one and it is controlled by One supreme law: then all those who are endowed with knowledge, and establish an order based on justice and equity; the result of such an order is the living proof of His authority. All these testimonies would lead one to the inescapable reality that it is Allah alone who wields the ultimate and supreme authority, and the entire system is functioning in a most orderly manner also because of His unique might and wisdom.

(19) This is Islam i.e., the only deen prescribed by Allah for all humanity. This was given also to the earlier anbiya but their followers created differences through mutual jealously. Allah’s Law of Mukafat is that whoever rejects divine guidance, Allah is swift in calling him to account. (2)

(20) If, O Rasool, your opponents dispute with you concerning Islam, tell them, “I have surrendered to it completely, and so have those who follow me.” And ask the Ahl-ul-Kitab as well as those who have not received any book before, “Do you also surrender to it?” If they do so, they will be regarded as rightly-guided. If they reject it, you will not be responsible for them. You have delivered the message to them. The rest lies with Allah Who is cognizant of what people do.

(21-22) There is grievous punishment for those who rejected Allah’s laws and slew their anbiya against all that is right, and also murdered those who asked them to act justly. All their deeds in this world and the hereafter will bear no fruit and there will be no one to help them.

(23) Have you noticed these Ahl-ul-Kitab who were given a part of the divine code of law? Now they are summoned to the Qur’an which is the complete code of law, to resolve their differences by reference to it. However, a group amongst them, refuses to do so and wants to remain indifferent to it.

(24) This is because decisions made in the light of the Qur’an are in accordance with the Law of Mukafat and they do not believe in this law. These people say that the fire of hell will not touch them except for a few days. It is their wishful thinking as a result of their false belief which has led them to deviate from the true concept of deen.

(25) But their self-deception cannot save them from the grip of the Law of Mukafat according to which everyone will get in full what he has worked for and no one will be wronged.

(26) O Rasool! Tell them that no nation is Allah’s favourite. Everyone is treated according to His laws which lay down that everyone will get the reward for what he has striven for (53:39). Status and position is also determined according to one’s deeds (46:19). So, whoever violates the laws deprives himself of authority and honour. He has laid down these measures to regulate everything and all this is for the good of humanity.

(27) The external universe provides evidence regarding the operation of Allah’s laws which are inexorable. For example, see how day and night succeed each other; how life emerges from inanimate matter; how living beings die; how everything in the universe receives sustenance beyond measure.

(28) People would obviously get divided into two groups: those who want to live in accordance with the Qur’anic system would be called momineen and those who reject or oppose this system would be called kafireen. Both the groups differ from each other in principle. Obviously, it is not proper for momineen to take kafireen into confidence. They will only have momineen as their friends and allies. And whoever takes the opposite group as their friends, will have nothing to do with the divine order (3:117-119, 58:22, 60:4). So, you should be very careful and remain on guard against them. You must protect the divine laws and keep them in mind – and that is your ultimate sanctuary and destination.

(29) We have made this thing very clear. So, even if after this, one of you cannot or does not break his contacts, it is better for him to join them openly. It is wrong and unfair that you have something hidden in your heart but outwardly, you express different things; and, what is the use of such an attitude when nothing remains hidden from Allah? Knowing the secrets of the heart is a minor thing when He knows all that is in the heavens and on the earth, and Allah possesses absolute control over everything.

(30) On the day of reckoning, each person will be confronted with all his actions – good and bad. He will wish at that time to be taken far away from the consequences of his ill-deeds. This is why Allah warns you to be mindful of His Law of Mukafat. This warning reflects the kindness of Allah.

(31-32) Say to the momineen, “If you ardently desire the establishment of the divine system, you should follow me. You will be protected from the ill-effects of the insinuations made about you and also receive means of protection and development. This is the practical way of establishing the divine system – complete obedience to the laws of Allah, not individually but collectively; the central authority of this system is the Rasool whose decisions, in accordance with the laws of Allah, are to be obeyed. If you turn away from this path, you will be counted amongst the kafireen.”

(33) All mankind was called upon to establish the divine system and in certain periods, this system did take shape e.g., during the early period of mankind, which has been narrated allegorically in the story of Adam (man) and Iblees (Satan) (2:30-36) and then the era of Noah and the house of Abraham and the progeny of Imran. Because of this, their status was raised above the rest of mankind.

(34) All of them were descendants of one another. Nothing of all this happened casually but in accordance with the plan of Allah who hears and knows all.

(35) The last in the series of anbiya belonging to the Aal-e-Imran (Family of Imran) was Jesus. The Jews levelled all kinds of allegations against him and his mother. To disprove these allegations the Qur’an has narrated what actually happened. This story begins when a woman from the Aal-e-Imran took a vow to dedicate her expected offspring for the exclusive service of Allah. She prayed, “O my Rabb! Accept my offering (because you know with what honest and sincere feelings I have made this offering). Surely, You alone are all-hearing, all-knowing.”

(36) She gave birth to a baby girl and thought inwardly that in order to fulfil her vow it would have been better if she had had a boy. But Allah knew that this girl was to do what a boy could not do. She named her daughter Mary (Maryam) and prayed to Allah to protect her progeny from Satan the accursed.

(37) Allah accepted the offering graciously. Mary was committed to the care of Zachariah and grew up to be a person of elegance and grace; because of her piety she began to receive various kinds of offerings. Whenever Zachariah visited Mary at the temple, he found these offerings beside her. He would ask her “O Mary! Whence come these to you?” She replied, “They are not from any person connected to the temple. These offerings have been brought by people in the name of Allah who gives sustenance without measure.”

(38) Until that time, Zachariah had no children. Raising Mary evoked in him the desire to have a child of his own. Therefore, he prayed, “O my Rabb! Bestow on me, out of Your Grace the gift of a virtuous offspring – You, indeed hear all prayers.”

(39) Whilst he was still praying in the temple, the malaika said to him, “Allah has sent you the glad tidings of the birth of (a son) John, who will testify to Allah’s laws. He will be a great leader maintaining discipline amongst his followers and (a person with outstanding capabilities) a nabi from among the saliheen.”

(40) Zachariah said, “How can I have a child when old age has already overtaken me and my wife is barren?” (Will the child be an adopted one like Mary or will it be my own?) The answer was, “No, the child will be your own son.” (The physical defect due to which Zachariah’s wife could not conceive was cured, and she gave birth to John in due course of time – 21:90). Allah said it would happen just like that because Allah does what He wills.

(41) Zachariah said, “O Allah! Let me know if there are any particular instructions in this regard.” Allah said, “The only directive is that for three days you shall not converse with people except by means of signs(3) and keep the divine laws before you unceasingly. Otherwise, go about your daily business in your routine manner.”

(42-43) Seeing the inner life of the temple, Mary (Maryam) began to have all kinds of apprehensions regarding her own future. To set her mind at rest, Zachariah sent her a message saying, “Do not be apprehensive. Allah has chosen you for a noble purpose. You will lead a life of purity and shall have eminence over all women. Be devoted to Allah and keep on obeying Allah’s laws just as other people do.”

(44) Mary’s apprehensions were not baseless. A number of priests wanted to take her in their charge. Their dispute became so serious that they had to resort to drawing lots to resolve the matter.

Allah said, “O Rasool! Allah is telling you all this through Revelation otherwise you were neither present at the time when the lots were drawn, nor when they contended about it with each other.”

(45-46) Mary had also been told that Allah had sent her the good tidings about the birth of a son, according to His laws. The son’s name would be the Messiah, Jesus – son of Mary. He would be illustrious in this world and in the hereafter. He would be most devoted to Allah. He would preach to people from an early age to an advanced age (5:100) and would be from amongst those who possess exalted qualities.

(47) Mary was surprised to hear this tiding about the birth of a son and said, “How can I have a son when no man has touched me?” The answer was the same that had been given to Zachariah (3:39), namely that the child would be born in accordance with Allah’s law of creation. Moreover, when He takes a decision about something, the initiation of the process starts forthwith.

(48-49) Mary was also told that her son would not be like ordinary children. Allah would give him the book based on wisdom and reveal to him knowledge of the Torah and the Bible, sending him as a nabi to the Bani-Israel to whom he would say, “I bring to you a life-giving message from your Rabb. Through this revelation I will give you new life so that you can rise above the depths to which you have sunk and be able to soar high in the sky” (5:110). In all this is indeed a message for you, but only if you have faith in it.

At present you are sightless; this revelation will give you sight so that you can walk on the right path.

At present, the fields of your activities are purposeless and lifeless; through Revelation, they will become constructive and fruitful. Your mean disposition, due to which others shun you, will be removed.

In short, your present death-like state of disgrace and degradation will be changed into a new life.

I will establish a system (replacing your present economic system) which would keep an eye on you to see how much of life’s necessities you utilize and how much you hoard in order to earn unlawful profit from it.

The changes which I bring about will serve as a proof of my being a nabi.”

(50) Jesus will say to the Bani-Israel, “(The law which I have received through Revelation is not a new one.) It will validate what has been said before in the Torah (and liberate you from your self-made Shariah – 4:160, 6:147, 16:118), and it will make lawful unto you some of the things which had been forbidden to you (earlier). And I have come with a message from your sustainer so always abide by the laws of Allah and follow me.”

(51) “And most certainly, Allah is my Sustainer as well as yours – He alone must be obeyed. This is the right path which will lead you to your destination.”

(52) This was said to Mary. Then Jesus was born and in due course of time received nabuwwa from Allah. He conveyed his revolutionary message to Bani-Israel. He was opposed by the priests. Perceiving their intentions to be dangerous, Jesus summoned his followers and asked them, “Who will be my helper in the cause of Allah?” They spontaneously answered: “We will be your helpers. We believe Allah, and you will be our witness to see how we submit to the divine laws.”

(53) This they said to Jesus. Thereafter they addressed Allah saying, “O our Sustainer! We believe in what you have revealed and will follow Your Rasool. Count us amongst those whose lives are a living proof of the truth of the divine order.”

(54) Those who opposed Jesus, plotted in secret against him. Allah on the other hand, devised the means to protect him. And surely His means are the best of all.

(55) Jesus’ enemies conspired to crucify him but Allah said to him, “Be assured that their conspiracy will not succeed. You will fulfil your mission and die a natural death (5:177). You will be exalted. I will absolve you of the allegations levelled against you and take you far away from the grip of these conspirators. At present your followers appear to be weak, but eventually they will overcome their enemies and remain victorious for a long time.”

“Keep this in mind that such disputes and confrontation are ultimately settled according to My Law of Mukafat.”

(56-57) According to that law those who reject the truth, face torment in this world and the hereafter and none can rescue them from it. On the other hand, those who accept the truth and work for its establishment are fully rewarded. And Allah does not like zalimeen (usurpers).

(58) These are the historical annals and laws which have been revealed to you by Allah, O Rasool.

(59-60) Moving from the Jews to the Christians, take up their claim that Jesus was the son of Allah. Tell them, “The birth of Jesus is like the birth of any other human being. Life emerged from inanimate objects and passing through evolutionary stages culminated in human form. This is the truth from Allah and there is no room for doubt or dispute in this matter.”

(61) If after such clear arguments, the Christians are not willing to accept the truth, you can tell them, “It is not our way to prolong futile disputes. We separate ourselves from you and you should do likewise. We should not interfere in each other’s affairs and the result will show who is deprived of Allah’s blessings (5:13, 6:136,  15:85, and 73:10).”

(62-63) O Rasool! You should give this challenge with full confidence because what you have been told is based on truth and is from Allah who is the supreme authority and whose power is blended with wisdom. If, despite your warning, they dispute with you, then Allah’s Law of Mukafat will deal with them.

(64) O Rasool! Say to these Ahl-ul-Kitab, “Leave aside these subsidiary matters and reflect upon fundamentals in which you pose also to believe, though superficially. These fundamentals which we present to you are that (1) the authority of none other than Allah should be accepted, (2) no creation should be set up as a partner to Allah, and (3) no human being should be considered as a possessor of divine powers.” If they accept these fundamentals, it is good, if they turn away, tell them, “You follow whichever way you like but bear witness that we obey only Allah’s laws.”

(65-67) Ask these Ahl-ul-Kitab, “Why do you dispute whether Abraham followed the Torah or the Bible? You do not even know that these books were revealed after his time. You used to argue in matters of which you had some knowledge, but how strange that now you argue about matters of which you have no knowledge! It is only Allah who knows and you do not know! Take note that Abraham was neither a Jew nor a Christian. He was a true Muslim. He obeyed Allah exclusively and did not associate anyone with Him.”

(68) Neither Jews nor Christians are close to Abraham. Those who followed him in his time were the ones close to him, and now this Nabi and Jamat-ul-Momineen are close to him because they follow the same path. And Allah is the protecting friend of the momineen.

(69-71) A section of the Ahl-ul-Kitab desire compromise with you so that you would deviate from the right path. They are deceiving themselves and do not understand that those who accept the truth cannot compromise. Ask them, “Why do you continue to deny Allah’s laws after you have seen so much evidence which testifies to them? Why do you mix up truth and falsehood and conceal the truth knowingly?”

(72-74) Another section of the Ahl-ul-Kitab resort to another subversive technique. They ask their people, “Join the Muslims at daybreak, pretending to be believers and leave them at the close of the day. During this period engage in discussions, designed to create doubts in their minds. In this way it is possible that some of them retract, from their eiman.” They exhort their people, “Talk to the momineen but only accept what is said by those who follow your religion. Do not admit that the like of what has been imparted to you has been imparted to others, and also do not admit that any plea advanced by your opponents will prevail against you before Allah.”

O Nabi! Say to these people that the right path is the one revealed by Allah. Revelation is a blessing from Allah which He bestows on whosoever He chooses. Allah is all-embracing. And, on the basis of His infinite knowledge, He chooses someone who is most suitable to receive the revelation and Allah is limitless in His blessings.

(75-76) Amongst the Ahl-ul-Kitab, religion is the private affair of individuals and has impact on persons differently by resulting in the formation of various types of character. Amongst them you will see some who will restore a treasure to you if you entrust them with it, and also some who will not return a dinar to you if you entrust them with it, unless you are pressing in your demand. The justification given in defence of their attitude by the latter is that whatever is done to non-Ahl-ul-Kitab is permissible. This is a lie which they foist upon Allah knowingly. Allah’s law is that trust should always be honoured. Promises made amongst you are in fact, made with Allah and He likes those who keep in view his laws.

(77) Promises made with Allah should not be bartered for a paltry price. Those who violate trusts may thereby derive some worldly benefit but they will have no portion of Allah’s blessings in the hereafter. Allah is so disdainful of this sort of behaviour that on the day of reckoning, He will not look at them nor speak to them, much less absolve them and they will suffer grievous torment.

(78) The technique followed by these people is to mix their self-created injunctions with Allah’s laws narrated in His book in such a way that the two are indistinguishable. They say to the people, “These laws are from Allah,” whereas they are not from Allah. They foist a lie upon Allah knowingly.

(79-80) The fundamental principle of deen (religion; way of life) is that no human being – even though Allah may have given him a code of laws or the power to enforce it or even nabuwwa (prophethood) – has the right to say to the others, “You should obey me rather than Allah.” What he should say is, “You should be amongst those who belong to Allah by following His book which you study and teach to others.” He should also not tell the others to worship malaika (celestial forces) or their anbiya (prophets). A momin (the convinced Muslim) will never do so. Do you think that after he has himself believed he would bid others to resort to kufr (denial of the truth)?

(81-82) The guidance which is being given to you now is nothing new. It has been given to earlier peoples through their anbiya, with whom Allah had made a covenant. This covenant was that when the last nabi who will validate the claims and promises made in their scriptures comes, they would accept him and also aid him.

Allah had asked them, “Are you aware that you are accepting the covenant on these terms?” They had answered, “We are.” Thereupon Allah said, “Be witnesses to this and I will also be a witness along with you.” Allah had made it clear that those who would backslide would be those who had abandoned the right path.

(83) This is that deen which is ordained by Allah. Do they desire to follow a deen other than this, when they can see that everything in the universe submits to Allah’s laws by choice or by constraint and follows the way which leads to the goal set for them by Allah?

(84) Therefore, O Jamat-ul-Momineen, say, “We believe in Allah and in that which He has revealed to us; and in that which was revealed to Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac and Jacob and their descendants; and that which was given to Moses, Jesus and the other anbiya by their Rabb. No distinction do we make amongst them and we surrender to the laws of Allah.”

(85) This is Islam. Anyone who adopts a way other than this will not be accepted and at the end he would be the loser.

(86) If a people have professed eiman and their nabi has established the divine system which testifies to its truth, and thereafter they turn away towards kufr, who is there who can guide them? And Allah’s law is that the zalimeen (wrongdoers, usurpers) cannot be the recipients of His guidance.

(87-89) These people will be deprived of Allah’s blessings as well as the support of malaika and righteous persons. They will remain in this state without respite unless they give up the wrong path and amend their actions. And if they do so then certainly Allah will protect them and provide them with the sources of nourishment.

(90) If they continue to follow the wrong path and their repentance is merely verbal, they will not reach the right goal.

(91) Those that have never accepted the truth and die in the state of kufr will not be saved from their torment even if they offer the treasure of the earth to redeem themselves. None will be able to help them.

(92) You cannot attain true freedom of the self unless you keep open that which you cherish the most to meet the needs of others. Allah surely knows of whatever you give away.

(93-94) We return now to Bani-Israel who object as to why the Qur’an has made permissible certain articles of food which were prohibited in their Shariah (civil law). Tell them that the Qur’an has made permissible that which was so before the Torah was revealed. There were certain things which Jacob denied to himself. The Jews included these as prohibitions in their dietary laws although this was not divinely ordained. Ask them to bring the Torah and read out if they speak the truth, and if they fail to do this and still continue to fabricate a lie and attribute it to Allah, they shall stand among the evil-doers in the divine court.

(95) Say, “Allah has revealed the truth, so follow the path adopted by Abraham the haneef. He was not one of the mushrikeen (who could have added something of his own to the divine law).”

(96) Another objection they raise is as to why the Qur’an made Makkah as the centre (qibla) instead of Jerusalem (2:142). Tell them that the first house ever selected for the entire mankind was at Makkah. It was from this place that humanity was destined to get the guideline and the fundamental law which would ensure stability and nourishment for all.

(97) This guideline is very clear. Moreover, this was the very centre from where Abraham achieved the illustrious position as leader of mankind (2:124-125). The greatest quality of this centre is that whoever enters it, would get all-round peace and security. And all those who can afford to assemble there must do so; they would see with their own eyes how very beneficial is that system of which this is the centre (22:28), provided the objective is not selfishness, but to establish the divine order.              These are some of the objectives of this centre and he who rejects the divinely-ordained order only harms himself, because Allah does not stand in need of anything in all the worlds.

(98) Ask the Ahl-ul-Kitab, “Why do you reject such a beneficial code of law? And remember that Allah is witness of what you do.”

(99) Not only do you reject it yourselves but you also place obstacles before those who desire to follow it and try to make the straight path of deen appear crooked when you yourselves bear witness to its being the straight path. Allah is not unaware of what you do.

(100-101) O Jamat-ul-Momineen, if you follow some of these Ahl-ul-Kitab, they will turn you into unbelievers. How can you renege your eiman and return to kufr? To remain steadfast in eiman, two things are indispensable: the book of Allah in its unadulterated form and a living authority to implement it. You have both – the Qur’an and the Rasool. Whoever holds fast to this order (based upon the book of Allah implemented by the Rasool and, thereafter, his successors) enters upon the right path (3:143).

(102-103) O Jamat-ul-Momineen, follow this code of law as it deserves to be followed throughout your life. This code should be held fast by all of you together and do not be divided into sects and parties. Remember Allah’s blessings to you in that when you were each other’s enemy and He brought your hearts together and thus you became brothers. This strong brotherhood formed on the basis of an ideology was a great blessing, although before that you were on the brink of a pit of fire and He drew you back from it. In this way Allah makes His directives clear so that you may take the right path.

(104) For the establishment of this system it is necessary that you should be such a jama (ummah) that calls all humanity to the Qur’an (3:109, 2:143, 22:78), enjoining what it recognizes as right, and forbidding what it declares wrong. If you do this, you will lead a life of progress and prosperity (23:1).

(105) O Jamat-ul-Momineen, you should not be like those who fell into factions and differed amongst themselves after clear guidance had come to them. For them there is grievous torment (6:160, 30:32, and 42:13).

(106) There will be two groups on the day of reckoning: one whose faces will be bright and the others whose faces will be dark. The latter will be told that they had renounced what they had believed in and should taste the fruits of their deeds.

(107) Those with bright faces will enjoy Allah’s blessings and lead a happy life.

(108) This guidance which is sent to you O Nabi, is based on truth. If it had not been given to mankind it would have been a zulm which is not intended by Allah towards His creatures.

(109) And Allah has not devised this system for mankind alone. His law also governs whatever there is in the heavens and the earth and it is because of this universal law that everything is busy in the fulfilment of its destined goal.

(110) O Jamat-ul-Momineen, your responsibility is not only to follow Allah’s guidance yourselves. You are an ummah (the Muslim fraternity) raised for the good of all humanity. Your responsibility is to enjoin what has been recognized to be right, and to forbid what is considered wrong by the Qur’an.

If these Ahl-ul-Kitab had believed in this way, it would surely have been better for them. Some of them have believed but most of them are deviant.

(111) Those who deviate cannot inflict on you anything but a trifling harm. If they engage in war with you they will turn their backs upon you in flight and none would be there to help them.

(112) Don’t you see what a life of misery and ignominy they are living? They have no abode in this world and no shelter, except when someone considering them Ahl-ul-Kitab, gave them shelter or they had some pact with some people – otherwise they have incurred the wrath of Allah and continue to remain overshadowed by humiliation. This is because they have persistently denied the truth of Allah’s message and transgressed to the extent that they even killed the anbiya unjustly. All this: because they rebelled and went beyond all limits!

(113-115) This does not mean that the Jewish people as a whole have lost the capability of adopting the right path. There are some amongst them who have accepted Islam and then rehearse Allah’s message during the night. They believe in Allah and the hereafter and enjoin what the Qur’an recognizes to be right and forbid what it considers to be wrong. They strive eagerly for the good of humanity. These are the ones who will be called the saliheen (good doers); whatever good they do shall by no means go unacknowledged. Allah is well-aware of the muttaqeen.

(116) As for those who have not believed, neither their possessions nor their children shall be of any avail against Allah’s system and it is they who are destined for the fire, therein to abide!

(117) Whatever these people spend for worldly life is like that freezing wind which smites and destroys the entire harvest because they did not make proper arrangements for its protection. Allah did not perpetrate any zulm (transgression) upon them, they did it to themselves and thus brought about their destruction.

(118-119) O Jamat-ul-Momineen, do not repose confidence in those outside your own circle. They will not miss any opportunity to harm you. They gloat over your suffering. Some of their hatred is articulated and what they conceal in their hearts is even more pernicious. We have told you all this very clearly if only you would reflect.

You befriend them but they do not befriend you although you believe in all the scriptures. When they meet you, they say, “We also believe,” but when they are by themselves they go wild with rage. Say to them, “Perish in your rage; Allah knows fully well what is going on in your minds (3:27, 9:23, 58:22, 60:4).”

(120) They are aggrieved when something good happens to you and rejoice if anything untoward happens. If you remain steadfast and hold fast to Allah’s laws, their conspiracies will do you no harm. Allah’s Law of Mukafat envelops them.

(121) Moving from the conspirators to those who confronted you openly, call to mind the battle of Uhud when you, O Nabi, left home early in the morning to set your forces in position. Surely, Allah is all-hearing, all-knowing.

(122-123) The confrontation was so severe that two groups from amongst you were on the verge of losing heart even though they knew that they had the support of Allah’s system. They were told that they had been given success by Allah in the battle of Badr although they were in a miserable condition. Therefore, you should continue to adhere to Allah’s laws so that your efforts become abundantly fruitful.

(124-125) On that occasion, O Rasool, you said to the momineen, “Is it not enough that Allah should help you with three thousand malaika who would come down to strengthen your hearts (3:125, 8:10, 8:12, 41:30) and if the confrontation becomes even more severe, the number would be increased to five thousand who would come swooping down, provided you remain steadfast and adhere to Allah’s laws.”

(126) According to the Qur’an (8:53, 13:11) change in the outward condition of a people depends upon inward change. This inward change is a result of unswerving confidence and trust in the validity of Allah’s laws and is called the help of malaika in Qur’anic terminology.

(127) This help will disable a section of your opponents and they will withdraw from the battle defeated.

(128-129) O Rasool! They are, no doubt, aggressors, but it will be none of your concerns to decide about their fate personally. It will be decided according to Allah’s Law of Mukafat which operates in the entire universe and determines who would be protected and who would be annihilated.

Success in war is a defence against oppressive forces.

(130) O Jamat-ul-Momineen! Do not accept an economic system based on riba. You think it increases wealth manifold, whereas it decreases it. You should always remain conscious of Allah’s laws and follow them as this is the way to prosperity and success.

(131) And beware of the fire which awaits those who deny the truth.

(132) And adhere to the divine order established by the Rasool so that you continue to receive the means of nurture.

(133) And hasten towards protection from your sustainer leading to the jannah which encompasses the entire universe and has been prepared for the muttaqeen.

(134) These muttaqeen help the needy whether they are themselves affluent or in straitened circumstances. They sublimate their violent passions towards some constructive end and do not care how others behave towards them. (And thus maintain the balance both in themselves and the society.) Allah likes the mohsineen.

(135) The muttaqeen are those who, if they commit an indecency or a wrong against their own-selves perchance, immediately bring Allah’s laws to mind and make amends for what they have done (by performing good deeds 11:114, 13:22). And what else but Allah’s laws can protect them from the adverse effects of their wrong actions? They do not persist wilfully on a course of wrong actions.

(136) For them the recompense is protection from their Sustainer and a life of bliss, therein to abide. How excellent a reward for those who labour!

(137) There were many man-made systems in force before you. Go into the world and see what has been the end of those systems and the people who upheld them.

(138) This is a manifesto for mankind and a guidance and counsel for the muttaqeen.

(139) So, O Jamat-ul-Momineen, do not lose heart or be depressed for you shall surely gain ascendancy, provided you are true believers (4:141).

(140-141) If you have suffered a defeat (i.e., in the battle of Uhud) your enemies had suffered likewise (in the battle of Badr). History will tell you that success and failure alternate in the life of nations. These trials bring out the worth of those who truly believe, and also bear witness to the truth. Those who fail the test are not fit to survive.

(142) In the light of these hard facts, do you think that you will gain jannah while you have yet to prove which of you have struggled hard and have endured steadfastly? (9:16, 29:2).

(143) You had yearned for death before you came face to face with it and now that you have faced it you appear to be undecided.

(144) Take note that the system based on eternal principles is not shaken by the death of an individual, no matter how important his position may be. This principle applies even to as great a personality as Muhammad(4) (peace be upon him). He is no more than a Rasool from Allah. Rusul before him have passed away. If he dies or is slain, will you then turn on your heels thinking that the system is finished? Whosoever does so will not harm Allah in any way. Allah will reward those who remain steadfast out of their conviction that the system does not depend upon personalities and will continue as long as the book of Allah is followed.

(145) Death is a natural phenomenon and the duration of life is determined by Allah’s physical laws. What matters is not how long a person lives but what he does. One who works only for this world receives his reward accordingly (17:18- 20), and one who works both for this world and the hereafter is also rewarded accordingly (3:147) and therefore whoever remains attached with this system, would very soon, himself see the result of his efforts (24:55).

(146-147) Many were the anbiya on whose side fought a number of their companions. They did not lose heart because of what befell them in the cause of Allah. They did not weaken nor did they give in. They stood steadfast. Their only prayer was, “O Our Sustainer! Grant us protection against our shortcomings or anything excessive in our doings; make us stand firmly and help us against our opponents.”

(148) Allah bestowed upon them the blessings of this life as well as an excellent return in the life hereafter because they had led a balanced life.

(149) O Jamat-ul-Momineen, if you follow the kafireen, they will cause you to relapse into your old ways and you will turn losers.

(150) Nay! Allah alone is your protector and He is the best of helpers.

(151) If you follow Allah’s laws exclusively, you will be unafraid and courageous, but if you also obey anyone other than Allah, it will weaken your heart. Allah has not issued any authority for such obedience. Jahannam (Hell) shall be your abode! (12:39, 18:26, 18:110, 39:29, 42:21). How vile is the dwelling place of zalimeen (wrongdoers, usurpers).

(152) Just one instance (in the battle of Uhud) explains how much loss you suffer collectively, when you have only worldly gains before you. While you were annihilating the enemy and gaining superiority over them, and thereby the divine promise was being fulfilled and victory was in sight  exactly at that moment you faltered and started quarrelling among yourselves about the order. You ignored the orders of your commander. Some of you were tempted to get immediate worldly gains while others, whose eyes were set on the future, remained steadfast. Consequently, your attention was diverted from the enemy towards the booty and (you were defeated and) your own worth became visible.

However, (when later on you realized your mistake, and came back to the original position) you were once again victorious. This is the law of Allah! If someone falters or commits a mistake, Allah does not deprive him of bounties for the rest of his life. Whenever he realizes his mistake and comes back to the straight path, he is entitled to all the divine bounties.

(153) During this defeat, you were so flabbergasted that you did not even look back (to see in what condition your companions were), although your Rasool was calling you from the rear. You were suffering one casualty after another. The lesson of the story is that you should never, on your own, leave your assigned duty and run after something, apparently getting out of hand. Never leave your position, even in extreme adversity; remain steadfast, and Allah is aware of all that you do.

(154) Recovery from the setback restored calm to those who had a firm eiman. As for the munafiqeen, they indulged in pagan ignorance and untenable suspicion against Allah. They went so far as to say, “What is this? Why should the decision to wage a war be made by one person? If we had a say in the matter we would not have come here to be slain.” Tell them, O Rasool, “These decisions are made according to Allah’s laws. Even if you had not fought in this war, the Jamat-ul-Momineen would have come here and fought by itself.” The good that came out of the behaviour of the munafiqeen was that it gave overt expression to what was hidden within them for Allah is quite aware of what is in the hearts.

(155) It was not the case that those who faltered had lost their eiman: rather, they misjudged priorities. Once they regretted their actions and made good the loss, Allah pardoned them. Allah is forbearing.

(156-158) O Jamat-ul-Momineen, be not like those who say about their brethren who had gone on a journey or engaged in battle, “Had they stayed with us they would not have died or been slain.” Such a mentality makes one oblivious of the laws of life and death. Those who fight for the truth and are slain or die in the struggle will receive a reward greater than all the treasures of the world. Humanity’s caravan is proceeding step by step towards its destination.

(159) O Rasool, one of the reasons for the progress of the Jamat-ul-Momineen is that you are soft-hearted. Had you been hard of heart, they would have broken away from you. Hence overlook their minor shortcomings and give them your protection.

But soft-heartedness does not mean weak-heartedness. The Jamat-ul-Momineen are your companions. Consult them in matters relating to your system and when you have resolved on any course, trusting in Allah’s laws, you should go ahead and certainly Allah loves those who place their trust in His laws.

(160) This is the manner in which matters should be resolved. As long as it is followed none can overpower you; when you cease to follow it none will be able to help you. Therefore, O Jamat-ul-Momineen, always have confidence in Allah’s laws.

(161)  This confidence in Allah’s laws can only come out of a firm conviction that these laws have been communicated truthfully. And there cannot be any sort of doubt in a law, which is communicated through a nabi  it is just not conceivable that a nabi would deceive or play false (it was after him that his followers made interpolations in the revelation) but when the Qur’anic order is established, the true revelations would become apparent – and everyone shall be paid in full for whatever he has done and none shall be wronged! (And if someone escapes in this world, he will get it in the life hereafter, because life is a continuous process.)

(162-163) Those who conform to Allah’s plans cannot be placed on the same footing as those who do not. The latter’s abode shall be hell. How vile a journey’s end! The former shall have a very high rank in the estimation of Allah who is aware of what they do (6:133, 84:19).

(164) Allah has been gracious indeed to the momineen when He raised from amongst their own people a Rasool who communicates His laws to them, purifies and develops their character and teaches them the book and its objectives. Hitherto, they were in a state of rank ignorance.

(165) By such instruction and training, the Rasool prepares you, O Jamat-ul-Momineen, for the establishment of the divine order. In attaining this objective you will confront opposition. In this opposition sometimes you will face defeat and sometimes you will have success. O Rasool they ask you, “Whence was that defeat?” Tell them, “It was brought on by your own selves. Allah has devised laws. Whoever adheres to them gains success; whoever disregards them suffers a loss. The loss you suffered at Uhud was in accordance with Allah’s laws.”

(166) One good that came out of the defeat was that the momineen and the munafiqeen were identified.

(167) When the munafiqeen were asked, “Come with us and fight in the way of Allah and defend yourselves,” they stole away. Now they say that they had not been sure whether there would actually be a war and that if they had been sure they would certainly have accompanied them. The munafiqeen are liars. They are closer to kufr than to Eiman. What they say is not what is in their hearts. Allah knows well what they conceal.

(168-170) They stayed away from the battlefield and said about those who fought, “Had they accepted our counsel, they would never have been slain.” Tell them, “If you are telling the truth, show me how you can evade death for ever.” Do not ever think that those who have been slain in the cause of Allah are dead. Say, “Alive are they with Allah, well-provided with sustenance, rejoicing in what Allah has bestowed upon them, and glad that because of their sacrifice those who have been left behind are free of fear and anxiety.”

(171-172) They are filled with joy at the blessings bestowed upon them by Allah. They have seen that Allah’s promise to reward the momineen has indeed been fulfilled. These momineen are the ones who responded to the call of divine order even after reverses had befallen them. Whoever adheres to Allah’s laws, receives an excellent reward.

(173) When these momineen were told that they should be wary of their enemy who had mustered great strength against them, it only strengthened their eiman and they said, “Sufficient unto us is Allah Who is the most dependable.”

(174) They returned with the bounties and blessings of Allah untouched by any harm. This was because they abided by Allah’s laws whose munificence is great.

(175) Satan causes others to be afraid of his party. O Jamat-ul-Momineen, you believe in Allah, therefore, you need not be afraid of his party.

(176) O Rasool, let those people who hasten towards kufr aggrieve you not. They can do no harm to Allah. By their tactics they may secure some paltry gains but they will have no share in the hereafter. For them shall be great torment.

(177-178) Surely, those who purchase kufr at the cost of eiman shall not hurt Allah in any way and for them tremendous suffering awaits. They should not think that the respite they have is profitable for them. If they do not mend their ways during this time, the respite will simply add to their torment and consequently their potentialities of development would get weak, and for them is humiliating chastisement.

(179) During the initial phase of a movement, different types of people, including hypocrites, join the movement and cause disruption. This state of affairs will not continue forever. Allah will surely sift the tayyab (good) from the khabees (bad). He will not disclose to you who is a hypocrite and who is not. He sometimes discloses to His Rasool what is kept in secret but He will not do so with regards to the hypocrites (47:29- 30). Hence, O Jamat-ul-Momineen, you should have complete trust in your order and adhere to Allah’s laws. You will thus have a great reward.

(180) The fundamental purpose of this order is to provide nurture to all humanity. Those who confine the means of nurture to themselves should not imagine that this is good for them. Those who covetously withhold what Allah has given them shall find that when the Nizam-e-Rabubiyya is established, these very things would become a halter around their necks. They should know that everything in the universe belongs to Allah and no one has the right to claim its ownership.

(181-182) The system sometimes calls for contributions. Your opponents tauntingly say, “Your Allah is indigent and we are rich.” We have heard and recorded what they say. We have also recorded that they have murdered some of their anbiya against all that is right. For all this, they will face great torment and they will be told that this is what they had prepared for themselves. Allah never does any zulm on His devotees.

(183) The Jews also say, “Allah has charged us not to believe in any claim to nabuwwa until he brings us an offering which is consumed by fire.” O Rasool, tell them, “Many rusul came before me with clear signs. According to you, they also did what you now ask me to do but instead of believing in them you tried to kill them. If your demand is made in earnest, why did you treat your anbiya thus?”

(184) Anyhow, they will continue discrediting you, O Rasool. You should not lose heart, for rusul who came before you were equally discredited although they came with clear arguments, scriptures and an illuminating code of life.

(185) Tell them that worldly life is not eternal. Everyone shall taste death and in the hereafter will be fully recompensed for his/her deeds. To be saved from jahannam and led into janna will be a great achievement. To make worldly gains the sole objective of life is to cherish an illusion.

(186) O Jamat-ul-Momineen, you will continue to have confrontations with your opponents resulting in the loss of your possessions and your lives (2:155). In addition you will also have to hear much from those who were granted Revelation before your time and also from mushrikeen (pagans), which will be very painful to you. If you remain steadfast and adhere to Allah’s laws it will reflect your high resolve.

(187) The Ahl-ul-Kitab say that Allah had charged them with such and such. This is not so. What Allah had charged them with was to expound what was given to them through Revelation and not to conceal it. But they cast it behind their backs and fabricated their own Shariah, bartering their Revelation for a paltry price. What a bad transaction that was!

(188-189) Their religious leaders and priests rejoice over what they do. They love to be applauded for what they preach but do not practice. Here they will secure some paltry gains and the applause they seek, but in the hereafter they will face great torment. This proclamation is from Allah who is supreme over the whole universe and who has devised measures for all things.

(190-191) In the creation of the earth and the heavens and the alternation of night and day, there are signs for those gifted with understanding. These people keep Allah’s laws in mind whilst standing, sitting or reclining. After reflecting upon the creation of the heavens and the earth, they cry out, “O our Sustainer! You have not created this universe in vain or for destructive purposes. Your schemes of things are much above flaw. Grant us the insight to understand the functioning of these things, so that we benefit from them and remain safe from suffering.”

(192-193) They also pray, “O our Sustainer! Grant that our efforts in this world are not wasted, for those whose efforts are rendered waste lead an ignoble life and these zalimeen have no helpers. Grant also that the forces of nature which we subdue are utilized for the benefit of humanity according to Your laws (13:17). We had heard the voice of a caller calling us to believe in You and we have believed. So, our Sustainer! If we falter, grant us protection and remove the ill-effects of our deeds. Grant us the companionship of those who have secured real freedom as a result of adhering to Your laws. O our Sustainer! Grant us all that You have promised us through Your Rasool and put us not to shame on the day of reckoning. We have a firm belief that You do not go back on Your promises.”

(194-195) They, thus, supplicated their Sustainer and their Sustainer hearkened to their prayers spontaneously, saying, “Certainly I will not suffer the labour of anyone amongst you, man or woman, to be lost. The one of you is as the other. Those of you who have migrated or were driven out of their homes, those who have suffered in My cause and those who have fought and have fallen, will be protected from the ill-effects of their shortcomings and led into gardens through which streams flow. This is recompense from Allah with whom lies the best recompense.”

(196-197) Let not the prosperity of your opponents deceive you. It is only illusory and for a brief period. Then jahannam shall be their abode and what a wretched abode that shall be!

(198) But as to those who adhere to Allah’s laws, for them are gardens through which streams flow – therein to abide: a ready welcome from Allah. This reception will be the best for the truly virtuous ones.

(199) The Ahl-ul-Kitab say that janna is reserved for them but Allah’s Law of Mukafat is that if they believe in Allah and in what has been sent down to you and in what had been sent down to them, and obey Allah’s laws, and do not barter Allah’s commandments for a paltry price, they shall be recompensed adequately for their deeds. Allah is quick in measuring out recompense.

(200) O Jamat-ul-Momineen, Allah’s laws have reached you. Now be steadfast yourself and cause others also to be steadfast, stand united and adhere to Allah’s laws so that you may prosper.

(1)          Verse 3:6  Muhkamaat means the ‘established’ regulations given in clear-cut terms (as compared to the ‘similes’ and ‘examples’ to give universal truths). These ‘established’ (Muhkamaat) facts are to be referred to as ‘mother of the book’ i.e., the foundation and basis of law.

(2)          Ilah – It denotes that the Being, in Whom is vested ultimate authority and the right to prescribe and legislate, Whose words or commands are considered binding and Who is worthy of obedience. See 43:84

(3)          The Jews observed some fasts during which they did not speak (19:26).

(4)          When Muslims mention the name of the Messenger Muhammad they add the salutation PBUH (Peace Be Upon Him). This salutation is not used in the Qur’an. It should be implicitly understood that, as mentioned in Surah As-Saffaat (The Ranks), we do convey Peace upon all the Messengers of Allah, Sustainer of the Universe.

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Exposition of the Holy Quran – 02 Surah Al-Baqarah (G A Parwez)

Surah 2: Al-Baqarah

(The Cow/Heifer)

                (1-3) Allah, the wise and the knowing has said: “The guidance you long for (1:5), is preserved in this book (15:9) wherein there is no uncertainty, ambiguity or psychological perplexity. This book(1) shows to the muttaqeen(2) (God-conscious) the path leading to the ultimate destination prescribed for humanity. The muttaqeen are those who wish to avoid pitfalls of the wrong path, who believe in the unseen (which becomes comprehensible through reflection on the Qur’an), and are confident that the right path will lead to the destination even though the former may be obscured initially.”

                In order to achieve this objective, they establish the Nizam-us-Sala (the Qur’anic system) in which all human beings follow the laws of Allah, and after retaining that much which is necessary to meet their basic needs (2:219), they keep the remaining material resources open for the needy ones for their nourishment.

                (4) The muttaqeen (God-conscious) believe in all the truths revealed to you (O Nabi (prophet) and those revealed to the anbiya (prophets) who came before you (the latter are, however, no longer in their original or unadulterated form). Believing in these truths (which are now all in the Quran) implies believing in the fact, which is corroborated by historical evidence, that whenever Allah’s plan has been followed, the same beneficial results have been achieved, namely, a blissful life free of anxiety. They, therefore, believe that now, again, adherence to the laws of Allah will bring about the same good results and their striving in the present will make the future bright, and that this process of evolution will continue even beyond death (57:12, 66:8).

                (5) The muttaqeen are the blessed ones who lead their lives according to the laws of Rabubiyya (universal sustenance) and whose efforts eventually bear fruit (23:1-11, 31:2-5). They wish to follow the right path, warding off dangers inherent in taking the wrong path.

                (6) As opposed to muttaqeen (God-conscious), there are kafireen (deniers/ disbelievers) who see the right path clearly, yet do not adopt it, being impelled by their obstinacy, jealousy, vanity, and vested interests (2:89-90, 109, 27:14, 35:42-43, 47:32). They do not follow this path themselves, and prevent others from following it (6:26, 41:26, 43:32). Whether or not the kafireen are warned about the disastrous consequences of following the wrong path, it is the same for them. They will never adopt the right path (36:70).

                (7) As a result of their outlook and actions, the kafireen (deniers/disbelievers) lose their capacity for observation and comprehension. They, thus, deprive themselves of the real joys of life, falling headlong into the inferno of devastation. Indeed, how pathetic is their end!

                (8) While the muttaqeen (God-conscious) and kafireen (deniers/disbelievers) accept or reject the truth openly, the munafiqeen (hypocrites) pay lip service to the truth of the divine code, the Law of Mukafat (retribution) and life hereafter, without believing in it.

                (9) They adopt two-faced tactics towards Allah’s system and delude themselves into thinking that they are deceiving the momineen (the convinced Muslims) who establish it. But if they were to reflect, they would realize that, in fact, they deceive only themselves.

                (10) Leading such a life results in a diseased mind and Allah’s law is that He furthers such a mind. This situation compels them to persistent lying and, what a torturous life it is that they have to live.

                (11) When they are asked not to spread fasaad (disorder) in society, they retort audaciously: “We do not spread fasaad); rather we are the musliheen (those who promote order) .” Beware! They, indeed, are the mufsideen (those who promote disorder).

                (12) It is amazing that these people fail to realize how the discrepancy between their word and deed exposes their true self.

                (13) When it is said to them that they should also adopt the divine code as the momineen (the convinced Muslims) have done, they reply, “They are simpletons who do not understand what is in their interest, and who forego present opportunities and benefits in the false hope of constructing an ideal society. Should we too become simpletons like them?” Beware! It is these munafiqeen (hypocrites) who do not know what is in their interest and who are, indeed, simpletons, since they do not even understand that to forego permanent advantages for temporary gains is not good trading.

                (14-15) Such is the duplicity of the munafiqeen (hypocrites) that when they are with the followers of the divine code, they aver that they too believe in the same truths, but when they meet their ringleaders in privacy, they say, “We are, in fact, with you. It is only for the sake of appearance that we meet them [the momineen (the convinced Muslims)]. In reality, we mock them by pretending to be on their side.” If they could only see that, in accordance with Allah’s Law of Requital, they mock none but themselves! Intoxicated with power, the munafiqeen (hypocrites) let themselves loose in the whirlpool of perfidy.

                (16) These people fancy that they are very clever since their deceitful ways bring them temporal returns, and they feel smug about their profitable trading. But, in fact, no one is more mistaken than they are, because they have exchanged the wrong path for the right one. Such trading cannot eventually prosper because the wrong path can never lead to the ultimate destination prescribed for humanity.

                (17-18) These pursuers of temporary and easy gains may be compared to one who, in the dark night of the jungle, lights a fire to find the way and the fire brightens the surroundings momentarily, but when it goes out, he finds himself in total darkness. In other words, the glitter of gains quickly acquired, initially dazzles the eyes like the fire in the wilderness. However, the brightness is followed by a darkness which renders one incapable of seeing, hearing or understanding (8:22). There is, then, no way left whereby such a person can return to the right path.

                (19-20) Hypocrisy may lead to some gains but these gains are always mixed with losses, just like a cloud, which brings life-giving rain, is also accompanied by darkness, thunder and lightning. The munafiqeen (hypocrites) desire to profit from the rainfall but, to be secure from the havoc caused by thunder and lightning, they stuff their fingers in their ears believing that they will not perish if they can shut out the terrifying noises of the storm. They are unable to perceive that they cannot protect themselves from lightning by simply shutting their ears, as Allah’s Law of Requital encompasses all those who deny the truth (7:183, 29:54, 79:36, and 82:16).

                It is to be remembered that though lightning can sometimes show the way to a traveller lost in the wilderness on a dark, stormy night, it is not a sure guide since it occurs only in flashes, each flash being succeeded by darkness deeper than before. Likewise, the human intellect brightens the path only shortly. Divine guidance provides constant light to those who tread the right path.

                If We had wished, We could dispossess the munafiqeen (hypocrites) of all means of acquiring knowledge (namely, the faculty of perception and hearing), so that they could not benefit from the means of nurture provided by nature. But we did not do this. We have prescribed laws for all events in the universe and We do not infringe upon these laws even though We have the power to do so.

                (21) Therefore, O Mankind! Do not be deceived by the glitter of secular systems (17:18-20). It behoves you to adhere to the laws of that creator and sustainer, Who created(3)  you and your ancestors, and Who has brought the human race to the present state of evolution through various stages despite the destructive forces of nature (7:172). This is the only way you can shield yourself from the hazards of the journey.

                (22) You will find protection from life’s pitfalls only within the universal system of Rabubiyya (universal sustenance) according to which Allah made the earth a resting place for you and scattered various planets in the atmosphere which remain in their orbits through mutual gravitation. Allah also caused rain to come down from the sky so that means of nourishment could be provided for you. It is evident that all means of sustenance have been given to you unearned but Allah alone is the owner and master of these means and you are permitted only their use. Therefore, take care lest you make human beings masters of these means. If you were to do this, it would be tantamount to shirk (polytheism), or setting up rivals to Allah.

                (23) If after reviewing such persuasive arguments and clear evidence, you are still in doubt and perplexity about the truth or falsity of this book (code of life) which We have revealed to you through our Rasool (Messenger of God), then there is a simple way to resolve this problem. Produce only one surah (chapter) like any surah from this book (11:13, 10:38). If you cannot do this single-handedly, ask various thinkers in your society to cooperate with you in producing the like of just one surah – accept this challenge to prove what you say is true.

                (24) But if you will not accept our challenge – and, for sure, you will not – and continue in your opposition, all of you, common and elite, leaders and followers alike, will fall into an inferno of devastation along with your wealth and glory. This devastation may occur through a war in which fire is kindled by human hands wielding destructive weapons or through an evil political system. In any case, this is the hell which those who defy this code of life have prepared for themselves (104:5-9).

                (25) In this turmoil, those who believe in the divine laws and in life’s higher values and follow the plan designed by Allah for the actualization of their potentialities do not need to worry. O Rasool (Messenger of God)! Tell them that they will lead a life of bliss both here and in the hereafter. This promise of joy and success is not exclusive to your present community. Whenever and wherever any community followed the right path, the outcome was similar (24:55, 39:74). Similar actions always lead to similar consequences though the forms of these may vary according to the dictates of time. In the society to be formed by momineen others who are like them in purity of conduct will become their companions. As long as this society remains steadfastly rooted in the foundations of the divine laws, it will continue to prosper and be safe from disorder and disintegration.

                (26) We have likened such a society to a succulent garden, janna (heavenly paradise), and We have used analogies of delicious fruits for the rewards of good deeds, since profound truths can best be explained only by perceptible similitude. Hence Allah’s omnipotence is not compromised if He explains abstract truth in concrete terms and if the need arises, He will not hesitate to use any simile even that of a humble creature such as a mosquito. Those who believe that the revelation is from Allah, will find these similes to be profoundly true whereas those who deny this basic truth, will find faults with them and question Allah’s motives for using them. It is not difficult to see how different conclusions can be derived from the same premise depending upon one’s mode of thinking, and how one can make the same premise the basis for following either the wrong or the right path. Those who follow the wrong path do not wish to live within the limits prescribed by the divine laws.

                (27) These people repudiate wholly the responsibilities vested in them by Allah’s law of universal Rabubiyya (universal sustenance) and violate their covenant with the divine system (9:111). By severing human relationships (13:21, 13:25) they fragment humanity into pieces on the basis of unnatural racial or national distinctions. They make individual self-seeking their primary motto in life, even though Allah’s system of Rabubiyya demands that human beings should respect the bonds of humanity (2:213, 10:19, 31:28). They, thus, create disorder in society and eventually cause destruction.

                (28) Ask these people, “How can you deny the divine laws when your own existence is its living testament? Howsoever you reflect, you will have to acknowledge the fact that there was a time when there was no sign of life on earth (76:1). Then life appeared, and, going through various stages of its evolution, reached the point when homo-sapiens emerged. Now you became conscious human beings worthy of being addressed as ‘You’ (32:9). From this process of creation it becomes clear that life was not created by you, but by Allah. Why should it then be difficult for Him to bring you back to life (40:11, 44:56) after you die? Life continues beyond death so that one’s deeds can be judged according to the law of Mukafat (retribution). You cannot escape from the jurisdiction of this law.”

                (29) This law has been ordained by Allah Who created you and also provided the means for your nourishment. If you reflect you can see how numerous planets are functioning harmoniously in space (57:1-2). This is also happening in accordance with Allah’s laws. He has full knowledge about the latent potentialities and requirements of everything.

                The purpose underlying the working of the universe is that human beings may be facilitated in following the right path (11:7, 53:31). In order to grasp this point it is essential to understand what constitutes the uniqueness of man and his place in creation. The story of Adam, which is narrated metaphorically, is in fact, the story of mankind itself. In this story, Adam stands for man, his mate for woman, malaika (celestial forces) for forces of nature, Iblees (the Devil) for baser human desires which become a powerful impediment in the way of his accepting or following divine guidance.

                (30-31) When the time came for homo-sapiens to dwell on earth, succeeding earlier inhabitants (15:27), the malaika (celestial forces) were taken by surprise, because, until then there was no creature in the universe which could dare to defy the divine laws (16:49-50). Man was given autonomy and freedom of will which implied that he could even disobey the laws of Allah. The malaika therefore, said:

                “O Allah! What kind of a creature is this who is now being settled upon the earth? This creature will rebel against Your law and, thereby, cause bloodshed and disorder. Contrariwise, we are always busy in doing the duties given to us and do our utmost to manifest the beauty and symmetry of Your system.”

                Hearing this, the creator of the universe said, “You do not know (the potentialities of Our new creations,) but We know them fully.”

                Each creation knows only its own functions but is unaware of how other things operate. Man, on the other hand, has been endowed with the capacity to acquire knowledge of how other things function and inter-relate, and how new things can be formed by combining existing elements.

                The malaika were then asked, “Do you also have such a capability?”

                (32) The malaika said, “Your plan extends much beyond the limits of our vision. We only have the knowledge which has been given to us, and do not have the capacity to acquire any more. You have complete knowledge of the entire universe and only You know Your plans.”

                (33) Thereupon Allah asked Adam to tell the malaika what he knew, and when Adam informed the malaika how things function in the universe, He addressing the malaika said, “Didn’t I tell you that We know all about Our creations and creatures which you cannot know. We also know how you are functioning at present and what your latent potentialities are.”

                (34) Hearing this, the malaika bowed before man but Iblees (the Devil)(4) did not do so and chose to be defiant and thus became one of those who deny the truth.

                (35) When man was made a settler upon the earth, at first his needs were very limited and the means of nourishment were plentiful (20:118). The socio-economic system prevailing at that time had no concept of private ownership, and the means of sustenance were available everywhere, satisfying everyone’s needs. There was thus no conflict, no differences and no dissension amongst human beings who lived like one family (2:213, 10:19). They were warned, “If you start mutual conflict, this paradisiacal life will be taken away from you and you will find yourselves involved in a grim and bitter struggle simply to secure means of survival. This will create chaos.”

                (36) However, driven by their selfishness, human beings began to live according to their own self-made system. As a result of this they lost their blissful life.

Humanity was split into different races, tribes and nations with enmity between them, and the resources provided for humanity’s survival and development were usurped by the mightiest among them.

                But human beings had been put on Earth to stay for a long time and everyone needed means of subsistence. Was there then no solution for this problem which human beings had created for themselves?

                (37) Indeed there was a solution, but man could not discover it through his intellect alone, since human reason, while it could show him ways to safeguard his individual interest, could not persuade him to be heedful of humanity’s security and survival. Mankind could regain its blissful life only through divine guidance. Surely, He is Oft-returning and Raheem (merciful).

                (38-39) When man lost his blissful life, he was told, “Do not be despondent. We shall send you Our guidance through Our rusul (messengers) (7:35); those who will order their lives in accordance therewith, will suffer no fear or sorrow (20:123-24). On the other hand, those who reject Our guidance will lead a life of constant torment in this world and beyond.”

                This, then, is a symbolic narrative of Adam’s (Man) life and what it means.

                (40) A living illustration of the principle explained above i.e., the people following the divine laws shall prosper and those deviating from them will be ruined, is the Bani- Israel (Children of Israel) who are (O Rasool (Messenger of God)) vehemently opposing these laws at this time. Say to them, “Recall that period of your history when you led your lives according to Allah’s laws; how happy, successful and eminent you were then. But when you discarded the right path, you also witnessed the consequences which were disgrace and ignominy (2:61). Now, once again, you have the opportunity to regain your lost paradise if you wish to do so. If you fulfil your covenant with Me (by adhering to My laws), you will see that I will reciprocate by fulfilling the assurances given to you (9:111). This necessitates that you dispel the fear of ungodly forces from your heart and only submit to My laws, fearing the disastrous consequences of repudiating them.”

                (41) This would entail that you believe in this code of laws (Qur’an), that we have revealed (through this Messenger). Allah had made certain promises to you – and these promises are contained in your scriptures  but these promises remained un-fulfilled since you did not keep your covenant with Allah. Now, the Qur’an reaffirms those promises, which will be fulfilled if you follow the divine laws. You, therefore, ought to have accepted the Qur’an eagerly, but, on the contrary, you took a lead in opposing it. We know that you have certain material advantages due to your religious leadership (10:69-70, 56:80-82), but the benefits you would derive by following this code would far exceed your present gains. Hence, you must live in accordance with it.

                (42) At present you tend either to conceal the truth (2:159) or (by mixing divine revelation with your self-made traditions) to confound the truth with falsehood in such a manner that the false appears to be true. You do all this knowingly for your vested interests.

                (43) Abandon this course of action and (after having adopted the Qur’an as your code of life) establish Nizam-us-Sala (the Qur’anic system), keeping available to mankind the means for its development.(5) You will, thus, be amongst those who submit to divine laws (19:119, 89:29).

                (44) One of the results of your following the wrong path is that contradictions and hypocrisy have appeared in your life. You counsel others to do good deeds and be broad-minded (2:177) but when it comes to your own selves, you forget it. You claim that you follow the book of Allah. Ask yourselves if Allah’s book would teach you to follow such a path.

                (45-48) The development of your potentialities and the correct ordering of your life is possible only if you adhere to the Nizam-us-Sala (the Qur’anic system) (2:153) with steadfastness and courage. Since you have become used to following the easy way of your self-made Shariah (civil law), you will find the path of deen (religion; way of life) difficult to travel. But if you keep in mind that you will eventually have to confront Allah’s Law of Requital, you may be able to overcome your egotistical tendencies and adhere to the divine laws. You do not need to be told of the consequences of adhering to these laws. You have witnessed them yourselves. When you followed them, you were blessed with all the boons of life and were pre-eminent amongst your contemporaries (2:122). When you gave up your adherence, your respect for law and justice disappeared. But this state of affairs can continue no longer for when the Qur’anic order is established no one shall avail another in anything, nor shall any intercession of one for another be considered, nor shall any form of compensation be accepted, neither shall they be succoured (2:123, 6:165). This would be the case both in this world and in the hereafter.

                (49) (Returning to your history) recall the time when you were in servitude to the Pharaoh who inflicted many torments upon you, the worst of which was that he created dissension amongst you (28:24). He degraded those respected members of your community who had courage and vitality and posed a danger to him (particularly those who believed in Moses – 90:25), while elevating those who were devoid of such qualities. Thus you, as a people, became weak (this is how the politics of despotism works – 27:34). When you submitted to the divine laws, Allah delivered you from the Pharaoh’s servitude. This was a great turning point in your life.

                (50) And then (after the conflict with the Pharaoh) you left Egypt and the Pharaoh’s army pursued you until you reached the sea. The Pharaoh’s army blocked your retreat while the water lay in front of you, but We showed you a way out and rescued you while the Pharaoh and his army were all drowned. All this you observed yourselves (7:138, 10:90, 20:77, 26:63, and 44:24).

                (51) And having reached the valley of Sinai, Moses, following Our command, left you for forty nights (7:142). During this short break you started worshipping the calf (Egyptian deity) and thus rebelled against the divine laws.

                (52-53) In spite of this, we did not reject you. Instead, We removed the ill-effects of your wrong-doings and afforded you another opportunity to foster your potentialities. We gave to Moses a code of laws which provided a clear criterion for distinguishing between truth and falsehood. This was given, so that in the light of this code you should safely reach your destination.

                (54) When (after forty nights) Moses returned and saw his people engaged in calf

worship he said, “By worshipping this calf you have harmed your own selves and your action has caused you to fall far below the level of humanity (7:152). You can make amends by admitting your wrong-doing and submitting to the divine laws with profound meekness and humility. This is the only way to benefit from the divine laws. And the characteristic of these laws is that if someone turns towards them, they also respond with full loads of nourishing qualities.”

                (55) We had given you a clear code of laws. Had you followed it, the results would themselves have convinced you of its divine origin. But instead of following this code and recognizing Allah through its workings, you said to Moses, “We are not prepared to accept anything you say till we see Allah with our own eyes.” You had demanded to see Allah unveiled but were terrified even by the thundering noise of the earthquake (7:155), although you fully understood the source of the noise.

                (56)  Even after that We revived you and afforded you the opportunity to foster your potentialities so that, liberated from the death-inflicting effects of bondage, you could live your new life as free human beings.

                (57) For this, you were given an abundance of worldly things, unearned. In this desert, you were shaded by heavy clouds and you ate delicious food – the meat of fowl and manna. Even then, you did not follow Our laws steadfastly. By your conduct, you did not harm anyone but your own selves.

                (58) We expected that you would live in the city successfully (5:21), and be able to use the means of nurture, as and when you chose, provided you adhered to Our laws. This way your mode of living like homeless gypsies would have ended. Thus, you would not only have been protected from the ill-effects of the wrongs already committed by you but your successes would also have been further increased.

                (59) But you preferred a life of ease and lethargy to one of struggle and discipline (2:61), and deviating from the path revealed by Us, followed one of your own choice. As a result, you lost your strength and courage (5:22-24). Consequently, you could not take possession of the Promised Land for forty years (5:26).

                (60) Recall also how, when faced with shortage of water, Moses sought Our help and We directed him to a place where water-springs lay concealed. He reached that spot with his people, removed the earth from the rocks, and from thence, not one or two, but twelve springs gushed forth. He allotted one spring to each tribe. We told you at that time that since your physical needs were being fulfilled, you should not disintegrate your society through disorder and inequity.

                (61) As mentioned earlier (2:59), you preferred an easy life to soldierly discipline and said to Moses, “(In this desert life) we cannot eat the same wild food morning and evening. You should ask your Sustainer for cultivated produce such as vegetables, herbs, cucumbers, garlic, different kinds of corn and lentils, onions etc.”

                (The life of the desert had, in fact, been a training ground for them where they could acquire soldierly discipline, and its food was such that it would have given them energy.)

                Moses answered “(Alas!) If you prefer an inferior life to the superior one that is being offered to you then go and live in a city where you will find what you want.”

                Because of their choice, they lost the capability to be strong and creative and developed traits of subservience and apathy, which led to their disgrace and humiliation. They suffered such punishment because they refused to live according to the divine laws, and instead of honouring their anbiya (prophets), sought to degrade them unjustly, and sometimes even to kill them (3:182), 2:87) thus transgressing the limits set by Allah.

                (62) This has been your record, but in spite of it, you believe that you are Allah’s chosen people (5:18) and that paradise is reserved for your race (2:111). This is your vain imagining. Paradise is not reserved for any race. Our law is that, irrespective of origin, any person from amongst the following can enter it:

  1. Jews, Christians, Sabaeans (Sabians);
  2. Those who believe in Allah without formally adopting any particular religion; and
  3. Those who are Muslim only by virtue of being born in a Muslim family.

                Whoever believes in Allah’s law of Mukafat (retribution), as revealed to you O Rasool (Messenger of God) (2:137) and leads his life accordingly, will be duly awarded. Such a person will lead a life of heavenly bliss, free of fear, grief and anxiety.

                (63) After this digression, return to your history and recall as to how you were given physical security by being placed in a valley with a mountain protecting you from the back, and how a code of laws was given to you for your guidance. We had also asked you to hold fast to this code and always bear in mind all that is therein, so that you may remain safe from all the pitfalls and dangers around you.

                (64) You had been asked to hold fast to the laws revealed to you. You made a firm promise to do so but you violated your covenant. Due to Our Law of Respite you were not held to account for your actions at once; else you would have faced immediate ruin.

                (65) As a result of deviating from the divine laws your character had degenerated to such a degree that when you were asked to refrain from business and fishing for one day in the week (7:163) your avarice would not permit you to comply with even such a minor restriction (4:154, 16:124). Through such actions you degraded your humanity and became objects of ridicule and scorn.

                (66) Your degeneration and wretchedness served as a lesson to all peoples – your contemporaries as well as later generations – teaching them how to be safe from such calamities as you brought upon yourselves.

                (67) Your habit of making excuses became so entrenched that when you were asked by Allah to slaughter a bull so that your hearts would be purged of dedication to calf-worship, you began to ridicule the order even though you knew that the divine decree was communicated to you through a Nabi (prophet) and that it was not appropriate for a Nabi (prophet) to talk ignorantly.

                (68) Then you started a hair-splitting discussion unnecessarily, saying, “Ask Allah to state unequivocally what kind of a bull is to be sacrificed.” You were told, “The bull should neither be too young nor too old but of mature age,” and that you should not dilly-dally in carrying out the order.

                (69) You said, “No, the matter is still not clear to us. Ask your Rabb (sustainer) to tell us what the colour of the bull should be.” You were told, “It should be of a deep yellow hue pleasing to the onlookers’ eyes.”

                 (70) Still, you did not wish to comply and for the sake of further disputation, said “The matter is still somewhat unclear; elaborate further so that we should know exactly what is required and then we would act accordingly.”

                (71) You were told, “The bull should be sound and unmarked, never having been used in a yoke for tilling or drawing water.” You said, “Yes, now you have clarified the matter fully.” You resorted to such quibbling over such a trifling issue, not because the matter was not clear to you. You knew well that We wanted you to slaughter a bull because of your calf-worship. But you did not want to do so due to your devotion to the calf (2:93).

                (72) Whilst you were so reluctant to slaughter an animal, you took a human life unjustly and blamed one another for the murder. But Allah wanted to unveil what you were concealing so that the crime should not remain unpunished.

                (73) The psychological condition of superstitious people is such that anything out of the ordinary causes them to be fearful (22:31). Knowing this, Allah said, “Ask all those whom you suspect of the murder to touch some part of the corpse.” (When the culprit came close to the corpse his fearful demeanour gave him away.) Thus Allah unveiled the murderer who was punished for his crime. Retributive justice which punishes criminals safeguards a nation’s life (2:179). You should therefore, use your intellect and insight to solve such problems (13:11).

                (74) You went through cycles of disintegration and reconstruction and finally you turned away completely from the code of divine laws and this hardened your hearts even more than stones. There are some stones from which streams or springs issue forth and which become so soft leaving aside their hardness in front of Allah’s laws that they can easily be ground. But your hearts are such that they do not soften out of compassion for humanity nor do they submit to the divine laws. You will be judged according to the Law of Requital and suffer the consequences of your actions.

                (75) O Momineen (the convinced Muslims)! Do you think that such people can ever cooperate with you, as you desire them to? Amongst them is a group (of religious leaders) who hear and understand divine laws and then deliberately alter them or interpret them in such a way that the truth is distorted and the rest of the people follow this group. How can people, who behave like this, accept the truth?

                 (76) You assume that these people are honest and truthful – as they profess to be in your presence – but when they meet together in privacy, they say, “We may intermingle with them but should be cautious lest we divulge those things in our sacred books which they may use against us.” You should fully comprehend this position.

                 (77) But they do not realize that they seek to hide from Allah that which He Himself had revealed to them. Ask them, “How can anything remain hidden from Allah?” He knows well, what these people reveal or conceal.

                (78-79) These people practice deception not only on others but also amongst themselves. The illiterate ones amongst them do not know what Allah has revealed and refer their questions about the Shariah (civil law) to their religious leaders. The latter frame the laws of the Shariah  themselves but present them as divine. Thus they deceive others just to secure a paltry price for it, not realizing that their fabrication of the Shariah and their use of it as a means of livelihood will bring about their ruin (56:82).

                (80-81) Also self-deceived, they say to themselves, “No matter what we do, we will not be held to account for it. At the most we will spend a short time in Hell (till our intercessors secure our forgiveness from Allah)”. Ask them, “Have you obtained a promise from Allah to such effect? If you have, then what you say must come to pass because Allah never goes back on His promise. You have, however, no proof to substantiate this.”

                Allah’s unchangeable Law of Mukafat (retribution) is that whenever a people become accustomed to violating divine laws and engulf their entire society in this mode of conduct, the inevitable result is disorder and perpetual destruction.

                (82) Contrary to the above, a people who believe in these laws and follow them, will be blessed with an eternal paradise-like life (2:112).

                (83) It was never your covenant with Allah that you would not be held accountable for your actions. It was that you would adhere to the laws of none other than Allah, treat your parents well, and also help your relatives, including orphans and others in need so that the equilibrium of society is not disrupted. You had also promised that you would deal congenially with the common people and exhort them to do good deeds. Furthermore, you had promised to establish the Nizam-us-Sala (the Qur’anic system) and a just economic order.

                After making these promises, however, you started looking for ways to evade fulfilling them and, except for a few, the rest abandoned the right path, and you backslide even now.

                (84) You had also promised that you would not engage in mutual bloodshed nor would you turn the weaker amongst you out of their dwellings. Such promises you had made after consideration of all relevant factors, and you have testified to that.

                (85) These were the pledges you made but you continued to shed each other’s blood and to turn the weak amongst you out of their homes. Your society, instead of taking the criminals to task, encouraged them to commit evil acts. When the homeless were taken captive, you secured their release and thought that by paying the ransom you had done a very pious deed, whereas expelling these people from their homes was a heinous crime, which you had been forbidden to commit. Such is your state of mind that you accept one part of Allah’s code of laws and deny another. When people make it a way of life to follow that part of the divine code, which they think serves their interest, and forsake the rest, they are bound to suffer failure and disgrace in this world and are committed to the most grievous suffering in the hereafter. This is the inevitable result of fragmenting Allah’s code: it should be accepted or rejected in total. And, bear in mind that according to the Law of Mukafat (retribution), no action of yours remains hidden.

                (86) These (above-mentioned) people trade the happiness of their future life for worldly comforts. Their ignoble condition is aggravated with time and no one can rescue them from it.

                (87) The process of revealing the divine laws to you did not end with Moses but continued after him. The last in the series of your anbiya (prophets) was Jesus, son of Mary. To him, We had given revelation in an authentic form which was strengthened by solid reasoning. This gave him great strength and confidence. But you adulterated whatever remained with you of the revelations given to previous anbiya (prophets). Such has been your way that whenever any Rasool (Messenger of God) opposed your interest or inclination, you became stubbornly resistant. You insulted some rusul and even plotted to kill others. You are now acting the same way towards this book so that it may be changed according to your desires (10:15, 11:113, 17:74, 39:45, 68:9).

                (88) Such is their hatred of Qur’anic teachings that they cannot stand to hear it, much less reflect upon it. They say, “It does not reach our hearts.” Tell them that it is not that this message does not reach their hearts; the fact is that they have lost the capability to reflect. Such persons pre-determine that they will not accept what they do not want to accept. Very few persons with this kind of mentality will ponder over the truth and accept it.

                (89) How strange that they reject that book which validates those moral values, which were instrumental in their gaining ascendancy over the kafireen (deniers/disbelievers)! They know well that this book is from Allah, but still reject it. This rejection does not affect the divine code but because of it they have been deprived of the salutary results which follow from its implementation.

                (90) Actually, the reason underlying their rejection of the Qur’an is that they are jealous of the fact that this Rasool (Messenger of God) is not an Israeli. Allah bestows Nabuwwa (prophethood) upon whoever is considered worthy of it (and nationality, country, language and colour have nothing to do with it). As a result of their obstinacy they lost all the joys and hopes of life. What a poor bargain they made in exchange for their lives! This is what ultimately happens to those people who rebel against the divine laws.

                (91) When it is said to them, “Come! Believe in the truth of this divine code,” they answer, “No, we will only believe in what was revealed to us and are not prepared to accept any other teaching.” They say this even though the Qur’an validates the unadulterated values which have been revealed to them and which they already uphold.

                Ask them, “If your only objection to the Qur’an is that it was revealed to a non-Israeli, why did you humiliate the Israeli anbiya (prophets), rendering their teaching ineffective and sometimes even killing them?”

                (92) Leave aside the other anbiya (prophets) of Israel, what did you do to Moses himself? He brought to you a clear code of laws but during his short absence, you took to calf-worship. Surely, you transgressed the imposed limits.

                (93) As has been stated earlier in (2:63) when in the valley you made a firm pledge to adhere wholeheartedly to the divine code, you were asked to reflect upon it deeply. You said that you had done so, but instead of adhering to the divine laws, you defied them because reverence for the calf had permeated your being.

                Say to them, “This is your previous record. Therefore, when you say that you do not accept the Qur’an out of loyalty to the divine revelation, which you had received, you deceive yourselves and others. If such beliefs and actions are the outcome of your eiman (conviction), woe is upon such eiman (conviction).”

                (94) Say to them, “If you truly believe in your claim that you are Allah’s beloved offspring (5:18) and that paradise is reserved for you (2:80) with no place for non-Israelis (2:111) then you should not be afraid of death. Rather, you should yearn for it.”

                Readiness to die is the first test of right conduct (11:7, 67:2).

                (95) They will never want to die since they realize what preparations they have made for the next world. Allah is well acquainted with such deceitful people.

                 (96) So, far from invoking death, these people are even greedier for life than Arab mushrikeen (pagans/polytheists). Each of them longs to live for a thousand years. But they do not realize that even if they were to live for a thousand years it would not be possible for them to escape from the disastrous consequences of their wrong-doings? That what all people do is under the constant vigilance of Allah’s Law of Mukafat (retribution).

                (97) These people are offended with Gabriel for delivering Revelation to a non-Israeli prophet (2:90). Say to them, “There is no reason for being offended with Gabriel because he does not, of his own accord, deliver Revelation to anyone. By Allah’s decree, the Qur’an descended upon Qalb-e-Muhammad (Muhammad’s heart) through Gabriel. Secondly, the Qur’an validates what you claim to believe and thirdly, whosoever believes in this revelation and acts upon it, will benefit.”

                (98) Tell them that their criticism of Gabriel extends to Allah Himself and to all the malaika including Gabriel and Michael and rusul (messengers). This kind of criticism is tantamount to kufr (denial of the truth). How can Allah be a friend to those who behave in this way?

                (99) Say to them, “Despite your opposition and jealousy, Allah has given this clear guidance to me and only those who have forsaken the right path will deny this.”

                (100) That, then, is the state of their belief. As regards their practical life, when an agreement is made on behalf of the entire community by its representative, it is repudiated by some of them who regard the agreement as a piece of waste paper. This is because most of them have no faith in the divine laws.

                (101) O Rasool (Messenger of God)! Their opposition to you is not a new phenomenon. They have been behaving in this manner in the past. For instance, when Jesus, who was from the Bani-Israel (Children of Israel) and was mentioned in their scriptures, came to them as a Rasool (Messenger of God), a group from amongst them rejected his teachings as if they had no knowledge about it.

                (102) The fact is, that these people never adhered to Allah’s books and remained preoccupied with their self-created myths and legends. One of these myths was that Solomon had turned away from the divine truth and had become devoted to magical practices and sorcery.

                How could Solomon act in such a kafir (denier)-like manner? Such evil practices were followed not by Solomon but by those mischievous ringleaders who themselves taught witchcraft to people and attributed it to Solomon. Another myth was that in Babel there were two malaika named Haroot and Maroot who had been sent by Allah. People approached them to learn magic by which they could cause dissension between spouses. Before complying, however, the malaika would warn the people clearly that they were a fitna (great mischief) and that they should not learn magic and become kuffar [the deniers/disbelievers] (but despite this warning, people learned magic – such was its fascination). All these were nothing but fanciful stories, for there were no such malaika in Babel nor had Allah taught Haroot and Maroot any magic.

                As far as magical charms or spells are concerned, they cannot harm anyone since all good or evil occurs in accordance with the divine laws. Those who profess to practise magic acquire some worldly benefits but ultimately they are the losers since temporary gains are insignificant in comparison to eternal happiness. Alas! If only they could understand such an evident truth.

                (103) If, instead of being entangled in these myths, these people had believed in Qur’anic truths and followed divine laws, they would have received excellent benefits from Allah. Alas! If only they could understand such an evident truth.

                (104) O Jamat-ul-Momineen (Group of convinced Muslims) ! Now it is necessary to understand an important point. You have seen that the mentality of the Jews was such that they constantly haggled with Moses saying, “We will obey you if you will accept our demands.” Such an attitude is wrong. Do not engage in such haggling with your system; instead, say to your Rasool (Messenger of God), “We will certainly obey the divine laws. Kindly keep an eye on us lest we deviate from the right path.”

                Also take note that words with double meanings should not be used nor should the truth be reported in a partial or distorted form as was the habit of the Jews (4:46). Remember, such things appear very ordinary but their effects are far-reaching. And those people who reject these facts are destined to receive grievous sufferings.

                (105) Those from amongst the Ahl-ul-Kitab (People of the Book) and Arab mushrikeen (pagans/polytheists), who have not so far embraced Islam, cannot bear to see that you should receive a revelation from Allah (3:71, 16:30), and through it, obtain the gifts of life. But their wishes are irrelevant in this matter. In accordance with His scheme, Allah sends His revelation to those He considers worthy of receiving it. The message of Revelation, however, is open to all, and anyone who wishes to benefit from it, can do so – for Allah is limitless in His great bounty.

                (106) The Ahl-ul-Kitab (People of the Book) also question the need for a new revelation (Qur’an) when previous revelations from Allah exist. They further ask why the Qur’an contains injunctions contrary to the earlier Revelation (the Torah) if it is from Allah?

                Tell them that Our way of sending Revelation to successive anbiya (prophets) is that:

  1. Injunctions given in earlier revelations, which were meant only for a particular time, are replaced by other injunctions, and
  2. Injunctions which were to remain in force permanently but were abandoned, forgotten or adulterated by the followers of previous anbiya are given again in their original form (22:52).

                And all this happens in accordance with Our laid down standards, over which We have complete control.

                Now this last code of life which contains the truth of all previous revelations (5:48), is complete in every respect (6:116), and will always be preserved (15:9), has been given [to mankind].

                (107) Say to them that no one can question why Allah has adopted such a system of revelation. Do they not know that Allah, Who is sovereign over the universe, alone knows which law is to be revealed and at what time? (Say to them that) if despite knowing this fact, they still refuse to obey this code of laws, they will find that no other code can resolve the problems of life.

                (108) In this context, O Jamat (group)-ul-Momineen (the convinced Muslims)! You too must note that the Qur’an contains all the laws, which Allah intended to reveal, and what is not mentioned therein is not an oversight on Allah’s part. Hence do not ask your Rasool (Messenger of God) questions about laws which the Qur’an does not mention as the Bani- Israel (Children of Israel) used to ask Moses (the result of such probing was that they made extra-revelatory laws a part of an unchangeable Shariah (civil law) and when they found this Shariah impracticable they repudiated their deen (religion; way of life) itself (5:101). You must not do the same. And whoever, after professing eiman (conviction), reverts to kufr (denial), surely loses the right direction.

                (109) Most of the Ahl-ul-Kitab wish to turn you away from eiman (conviction) towards kufr (denial) not because they do not understand the truth – the truth has been revealed to them clearly – but on account of their jealousy. You should not waste your time and energy arguing with these people. Until the decisive moment arrives, pay no attention to them and continue to work for the accomplishment of your programme (5:13, 15:85, 73:10, and 74:11). Allah knows what course of action He should adopt at a particular time.

                (110) Your programme will be completed with the establishment of Nizam-us-Sala (the Qur’anic system) and Zaka (universal growth). During the initial phase you will feel that your efforts do not bear fruit. Be sure that your efforts will not be wasted. In due course of time you will see the fruits of your labour according to Allah’s Law of Mukafat (retribution) (2:3). Surely, all your deeds are under constant monitoring by Allah’s Law of Mukafat.

                (111) The Ahl-ul-Kitab i.e., Jews and Christians, claim that Paradise is reserved for them exclusively (2:111). This is wishful thinking on their part. Tell them to substantiate their claims in rational terms, if what they say is true.

                (112) The Law of Mukafat (retribution) stipulates that Paradise is attained by living in accordance with the divine laws and not through wishful thinking. Those who attain Paradise will be free of fear and anxiety.

                (113) The Jews and Christians put up a united front against you, but have serious mutual enmity. The Jews accuse the Christians of having no true religion and the Christian retort likewise. The paradox is that both claim to follow books of Revelation. Like them, the Arab mushrikeen (pagans/polytheists), who are bitterly divided amongst themselves, are united in their opposition to you. They also assert that their beliefs are founded upon truth though they have no revealed books. Conflict is the necessary result of factionalism. Their differences (which are a sign of being alienated from Allah – 3:104) will not be obliterated until a system in accordance with the Qur’an has been established and all obey one single code of laws (11:118-119).

                (114) The Qur’an’s revolutionary system is being founded by the Jamat (group)-ul-Momineen (the convinced Muslims) with masajid (mosques) as their centres of activity, where people are instructed to submit only to Allah’s law. Can anyone be a greater enemy to humanity than those who are striving to break up this system and put up all kinds of barriers to prevent the implementation of Allah’s laws (72:18)? If anyone comes to these centres, he should come without insurgency in his heart. Those who cause disintegration of the Qur’anic system will be degraded and disgraced in this world and in the hereafter.

                (115) They should realize that even if they do not let the divinely-designed system be established in this place (Makkah), the system will not fail. This system is not confined to any particular place. This is the system of Allah Who transcends limitations of Time and Space. Therefore, (O Jamat (group)-ul-Momineen (the convinced Muslims)! Whenever you turn to Allah you will find the way that leads to Him. Allah’s system is extensive and is based entirely on knowledge and wisdom.

                (116-117) Ask the Christians, “How can you justify your belief in Allah when you perceive Him as having a son? You have brought Allah down to the level of human beings who stand in need of progeny as helpers. Nay, He is far above this concept. All that is in the heavens and the earth belongs to Him and everything therein devoutly follows His laws. Allah is omnipotent and has brought a colossal universe into existence from nothingness. His manner of creation is that when He decides to create a particular thing, the process of its coming into existence begins at once.” The possessor of such powers has no requirement for a son.

                (118) Those amongst them who do not understand what Revelation is and how it is given to anbiya (prophets), say, “If Allah wishes to guide us why does He not talk to us directly or show us some miracle whereby we can recognize that this revelation is indeed from Allah?” Such a demand had also been made in the past by people with a similar mentality. Those who understand the nature of Revelation do not make such a demand.

                (119) It is in accordance with Our plan that We have sent you, O Rasool (Messenger of God), with truth so that you may give glad tidings to those who live in accordance with Allah’s Revelation and warn those who do the opposite (13:40). If the latter do not pay heed to your warning that they would be destroyed, you will not be held responsible for their agonising end.

                (120) These Jews and Christians have predetermined that they will not be pleased with you until you (O Rasool ) leave your path and follow theirs.

                Say to them, “The question is not whether my path – or yours – is the right one. Only that path can be the right one which is shown by Allah’s Revelation which you do not have in its original form but is preserved in the Qur’an.”

                (O Rasool, supposing) if, after having received Allah’s revelation, you begin to follow the path of these people, you will become like them, and none will be able to save you from the disastrous consequences of following the wrong path (7:3, 10:109, 13:37).

                (121) Those to whom this code of laws (Qur’an) has been given, and who follow it as it ought to be followed, are the momineen. While those who deny its validity, do not belong to this class. Such people will eventually be the losers.

                (122) What We have said before is based on facts. Hence say to these Jews (Bani- Israel (Children of Israel)), “Recall the period of your history when you accepted Allah’s guidance. You received the bounties of life and gained supremacy over your contemporaries.”

                (123) When you gave up your adherence, your respect for law and justice disappeared. But this state of affairs can continue no longer, for when the Qur’anic order is established, no one shall avail another in anything, nor shall any intercession be considered, nor shall any form of compensation be accepted, nor will they be succoured. This would be the case in this world and in the hereafter (2:48).

                (124) Doubtless, great courage and fortitude is required to uphold a system based on truth and justice, but history bears witness that there have been people who have done so. You are familiar with the life of your illustrious forefather Abraham who could have inherited the office of the highest religious leader if he had followed in the footsteps of his father. But he disdainfully refused to do so, and with absolute determination and steadfastness, stood for the establishment of the system designed by Allah (37:83-97, 60:4). As a result of this, he had to pass through many grim circumstances. When he had confronted them successfully, he was declared to be worthy of being the imam (leader) of, and a role-model for, the human race. On receiving such honours, Abraham asked Allah if his progeny would also inherit them. The answer was that if his progeny deviated from the right path they would be deprived of them.

                (125) This system, of which the Ka’bah (the House of God) has been declared as a centre, is the one which Abraham had established in order to bring all humanity together and bring about universal peace. O Jamat (group)-ul-Momineen (the convinced Muslims)! If you aspire to attain Abraham’s standing, you must follow his path and emulate his conduct.

                We had insisted that (the builders of the Ka’bah Abraham and Ishmael should make this place the centre of a universal system undefiled by man-made beliefs and ideas. This centre was to be reserved for organizing and training momineen (the convinced Muslims) who submit to the laws of Allah and their purpose in life would be to keep a vigil so that humanity is protected from danger, and to resolve its knotty problems.

                (126) While building the Ka’bah, Abraham prayed to Allah, “O Sustainer of all creation, make this house a sanctuary for the oppressed people of the world (95:3) and grant the bounties of life abundantly (14:37) to those who believe in the truth of Your laws and in the hereafter.”

                Allah said, “Verily they will receive life’s bounties. Regarding those who reject the divine laws, they too in accordance with Our physical laws, will obtain the immediate gains of life (17:18-20) but eventually they will become wretched, having been dragged, in complete helplessness to this miserable position; how vile a journey’s end!”

                (127-129) Continuing their prayer as they raised the walls of the Ka’bah,  Abraham and Ishmael said:

                “O our Sustainer! Accept our humble efforts because you are fully aware regarding what we speak and what is hidden in our hearts. Our supplication is that by associating with this centre, we and our future generations should live according to Your code of laws. O Our Sustainer! Show us the way whereby we can reach the destination You have prescribed for humanity, and continue to receive Your bounties and blessings for such is Your law that it brings the means of nurture to anyone who makes an effort to obey it (2:186).

                O our Nurturer! Let our progeny continue in our footsteps until that Rasool (Messenger of God) should arise from amongst them who would give Your code of laws to all humanity and teach them to the momineen, and explain to them the why’s and wherefore of it all (6:116). He would also establish a system wherein their potentialities are actualised and utilized according to Your guidance; and such a system can only be established by the one who possesses power blended with wisdom. Most certainly, You alone are almighty, wise.”

                (130) This was the way of life followed by Abraham which made him the chosen one both in this world and in the hereafter.

                Is it not now obvious that only that person would reject Abraham’s way who has never thought about the value of his personality and its development?

                (131) This actually was the way of Abraham who, when asked by his Sustainer to submit to His laws, said, “I am at Your service,” and complied fully with those laws.

                (132) He also exhorted his sons to do so. Likewise (the venerable ancestor of the Jews) Jacob also upheld the same way of life, and said to his children, “This system of life is that which Allah has chosen for you. Hence, you should live according to it throughout your life.”

                (133) Do you know what Jacob said to his children at the time of his death? He asked them whose authority they would accept after him. They said that they would remain obedient to the laws of Allah as did their forefathers Abraham, Ishmael and Isaac; to the Absolute Authority in the universe and to His laws did they surrender.

                (134) Such were the forbearers of the Jews – each one living his life according to Allah’s laws. Now, they assume that merely on the basis of being the offspring of such worthy ancestors they will be blessed with the same bounties of life. Say to them, “Actions produce their own results. Results cannot be inherited -your ancestors reaped the fruits of what they sowed and you will reap what you have sown. On the Day of Judgement you will be questioned about your own deeds and not about the deeds of your forefathers.”

                (135) They (Jews and Christians) say, “You can be considered to be following the right path only if you follow our way.” Tell them, “Why do you not invite people to follow Abraham’s way? Abraham was neither a Jew nor a Christian (3:66). He was a true follower of the divinely ordained path and did not associate anyone with Allah.”

                (136) Tell them, “We believe in Allah and in that code of life which He has sent us (through this Rasool (Messenger of God)). Essentially, this code of life is like the ones which, in earlier times, were given to Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, Moses, Jesus and in fact all the other anbiya (prophets). We believe that each of them was a part of the same series and make no distinction amongst them as anbiya.“

                This is our eiman (conviction).

                (137) Say to them, “If you profess eiman as we have done, you will also be following the right path. If you repudiate it, this will be tantamount to abandoning the path followed by the anbiya.”

                If they do not follow this way and remain stubbornly resistant and hostile to you, you should not worry about it. Our system to which you adhere is capable of protecting you from them and this system is devised by Him Who alone is all-hearing, all-knowing.

                (138) Say to the Christians, “Salvation is not acquired through baptism by water. It is achieved through harmony with the divine laws.” Say to them, “This is the way we have chosen for ourselves.”

                (139) Tell them, “You believe in an Allah Whose blessings are confined to Bani-Israel, whereas we believe in the Allah whose Rabubiyya (universal sustenance) is open to all human beings. Do you quarrel with our concept of Allah? If you do so, it is your own business. We are responsible only for ourselves and not for you. And our allegiance is to Him only.”

                (140) If they still insist on saying that Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob and the other anbiya (prophets) for the Bani- Israel (Children of Israel) were Jews or Christians, tell them that you do not agree with them because your claim is based upon Revelation. The anbiya had also taught the same thing but their teachings were kept away from people. And who is more unjust than he who conceals a testimony that has come down from Allah? Surely, Allah is not unmindful of what you do.

                (141) At any rate, if despite what has been explained to them fully, they remain insistent upon their forefathers’ characteristics and deeds, this does not change the truth. As stated earlier, their ancestors will answer for their own deeds and these people will have to answer for theirs.

                And you will not be held responsible for them or judged on the basis of what they did.

                (142) The people (Jews) ask why did the Muslims forsake Jerusalem as qibla(6) (centre) and instead made Ka’bah (the House of God) as their qibla when the earlier Ahl-ul-Kitab (People of the Book) had Jerusalem as their qibla.

                This question arises from lack of knowledge. Otherwise, the matter is not difficult to comprehend. Jerusalem is the national centre of the Bani- Israel (Children of Israel) while Islam is a call to all humanity. It is obvious that the centre of a universal order should be open to the entire world and not be confined to a particular nation or race. For this purpose, Allah has guided the Jamat (group)-ul-Momin (the convinced Muslims) towards the Ka’bah, which is the straight path.

                (143) Therefore, O Momineen (the convinced Muslims)! Pay no heed to this question. Our objective is to make you a people with a universal outlook, equidistant from all other peoples i.e., neither leaning towards any particular people nor estranged from another. Your responsibility is to keep watch over the activities of other people of the world (to see that no nation is oppressing the other) and the responsibility of a Rasool

(Messenger of God) (being the head of the divinely-ordained system – 3:109, 22:78) is to watch over your activities.

                The objection raised by the Jews is the outcome of a conflict between two opposite mentalities; one given to examining a disputed point objectively and the other to dealing with it subjectively. On rational grounds, it is obvious that a system established for the benefit of all humanity is decidedly better than one which has narrower i.e., riba – usuary; interest or racial objectives. The adoption of the Ka’bah (the House of God) as the centre not of a particular people but of a universal system constituted a concrete criterion whereby the two mentalities could be distinguished from each other. Subscribing to a universal system rather than one based upon narrow riba – usuary; interest or racial affiliations and interests, is an uphill task but those who have the courage to take such a course are duly protected from the ill effects of destructive forces and provided adequate sources of nourishment.

                (144) We are also aware of your constant yearning that you should have possession of, and jurisdiction over the place (Makkah) which We have proclaimed to be the centre of Our system. This will certainly happen. What you need to do is to direct all your activities towards liberating the Ka’bah (the House of God) from ungodly forces wherever you may be and whatever is your sphere of activity.

                The fact is that these Ahl-ul-Kitab (People of the Book) know fully well that your call is based upon truth from Allah (since it was mentioned in their books) but they will continue to oppose it out of stubbornness and prejudice. We are aware of all that they do.

                (145) It is evident that rational arguments are ineffective where stubbornness and prejudice prevail. Therefore, even if you advance all possible arguments, they will not follow your qibla (centre) but insist that you should follow theirs. This you cannot do since your qibla is divinely appointed. It is strange that Jews and Christians unite in their opposition to you but their qibla (centre)s are separate. If, hypothetically speaking, having learned the truth, you feel inclined to compromise with their wishes, you will obviously be defying divine laws.

                (146) These people are well aware of these realities and recognize your call as surely as one recognizes his own children (because it is mentioned in their books) but their religious leaders deliberately conceal it.

                (147) Anyhow, this is the truth which has been made clear to you by your creator and sustainer, and there is no need to engage in any dispute over it.

                (148) In spite of the great importance of having a centre, take note of the fact that having one is not an end in itself; every nation has some sort of a centre. What really matters is how far ahead you are of other nations in working for the good of mankind (2:177). If you keep this goal in mind, then wherever you are and whatever you do,  Allah’s system will make you a united community (because unity or cohesion depends upon unanimity of purpose or ideology and not on national or racial commonality). You should note that Allah’s law is cognizant of the measures of all things and has supreme control over them.

                (149) The practical method of achieving homogeneity is that whenever and from wherever you start your journey, focus all your attention upon the goal set for you by Allah. This message, based upon truth, is from your Creator and Sustainer. Be aware that none of your deeds are hidden from Allah’s law of Mukafat (retribution).

                (150) Thus the basic rule for your life’s journey is that wherever you are, when you intend to advance in pursuit of some project, keep your eyes focused upon your centre. O Rasool (Messenger of God)! You and your jamat (group) should act accordingly, and if you do so, the splendid results of your efforts will validate your deen (religion; way of life) and no one will dare to challenge it except those who (due to their stubbornness and prejudice) drift far from the path of truth and justice. There is, however, no reason to fear such people. You need only be careful that you do not go astray from the divine laws.

                We have given you this code so that you should have all the blessings of life (5:3) and advance towards the ultimate goal designated for humanity.

                (151) For this purpose We have sent this Rasool so that he may communicate Our message to you, explain the divine laws to you and instruct you regarding their why and wherefore. At the same time, he establishes an order wherein your potentialities may develop. What you learn from the Rasool, you did not know before (the revelation was sent to you).

                (152) If you follow this code of the divine laws, Allah will safeguard your rights and grant you honour and eminence (21:10, 21:24, 23:71, 43:44). Therefore value this great gift given to you and do not let it be lost from your view.

                (153-154) But in establishing this system great obstacles and hardships will have to be faced (since vested interests would not allow it to be established easily). In facing these difficulties, keep two things in mind: firstly – do not lose your steadfastness or courage of conviction and secondly – no matter what way your opponents choose to follow, you should follow the path prescribed for you by Allah. This way you will be greatly strengthened. During the struggle for the establishment of the divine system one should be prepared even to face death. If someone dies in this struggle, he should not be considered dead (3:168) for he has attained eternal life even though it cannot be perceived through the senses.

                (155-156) This struggle will provide you with many opportunities to test your own mettle. You may encounter wars and massacres and also be confronted with scarcity of food and loss of life and property or with devastation of fields and orchards. Such ordeals may take place but ultimately those who remain steadfast and do not waver in their commitment to establish Allah’s system, will be successful. They meet every challenge saying, “We have dedicated ourselves to the establishment of the divine system and come what may we will continue to advance towards that goal.”

                (157) They are the people who are considered to be eminently deserving of blessings and laudation by their Creator and Sustainer. They will certainly attain their goal.

                (158) Through this struggle, the divine system with the Ka’bah (the House of God) as its designated centre will be established. It is clear that this system will have to deal with numerous problems, which will be decided by mutual consultation of the ummah (the Muslim fraternity) (42:38). For this, congregational meetings like Hajj (the annual Pilgrimage) and Umra (the lesser Pilgrimage), will be necessary. On these occasions there is no harm if certain traditional rites (e.g., traversing the valley between Safa and Marwah) are also performed (provided these rites do not clash with any principle of deen (religion; way of life)). These rites should not be taken as the real purpose of the meetings which is to move forward in activities relating to the welfare and betterment of humanity (2:148). Moreover, sanctity should also not be attached to these rites or to the physical objects associated therewith. They are merely symbols. The real object is to excel in doing good deeds for the benefit of the people (2:148). So whoever takes part in these things whole-heartedly, his efforts will bring full fruit, because Allah’s law of Mukafat (retribution) also knows the intentions beyond plain actions.

                (159) This then is the purpose of the Hajj (the annual Pilgrimage). Whoever conceals this purpose which Allah has made explicit in the Qur’an, and makes these assemblies mere rituals will be deprived not only of the blessings which come as a result of following the divine code but also of the support of those forces of nature which could assist him in the achievement of his goal (2:161).

                (160) It should not, however, be assumed that such a deprivation is eternal. This is certainly not so. If a person returns to the point from where he went off the right track, and takes the right one and makes manifest (the truth) he will once again be eligible to receive Allah’s blessings, because He also rushes forth with all His bounties and provisions for that person’s redemption.

                (161-162) But those who continue to walk on the wrong path till their death, will remain deprived of divine blessings, the support of natural forces and righteous human beings combined. Their ruin will not be alleviated nor will they be granted any respite (because the results of actions become manifest only after the period of respite has expired).

                (163) This occurs precisely as stated above since it is the law of Allah that governs the universe and it is His programme that all creation should receive means of nurture and advance from stage to stage (1:2).

                (164) If you wish to see the laws of Allah operating, reflect upon the amazing machinery of the universe and how it has been created; how day and night alternate; how such big ships laden with cargo cross the oceans; how clean water descends from the clouds and gives new life to the dead earth. Reflect, also upon the manner in which species and varieties of animate beings are scattered through the earth; how winds change their direction in different seasons; and how clouds are marshalled to perform their assigned duties in the atmosphere.

                Reflection upon these natural phenomena can lead only to one conclusion, namely, that creation has been planned and is controlled by a single Omnipotent Being. This conclusion, however, is reached only by those who apply their mind deeply.

                (165-166) But there are also people who ascribe Allah’s Omnipotence to others and obey their commands in the manner in which Allah’s commands should be obeyed. However, those who believe in the validity of the divine laws, adhere to them with absolute commitment, following no other laws, nor do they set up human beings as rivals to Allah (7:3). The former cannot perceive the truth until the results accruing from their wrong conduct become visible. At that time they will know that Allah alone has sovereignty in the world and that the outcome of forsaking Allah’s laws for others and deifying human beings, can be nothing but ruin. Then they will see how their leaders whom they followed were deserting them; how those from whom they expected support were falling apart; and how their relationships were being severed.

                (167) Then people will cry out, “If the hand of time could be turned back, we would turn our backs upon our leaders as they have turned their backs upon us.” When the results of their actions are unveiled before them, they know that those whom they had considered to be their pillars of support, have reduced them to such a state of helplessness and despondency that they are unable to extricate themselves from their misfortune.

                How pitiful is their end!

                (168-169) Their leaders exhort them to create disorder in society, to safeguard only their own interests and to hoard wealth. They present their own views as if these were an edict from Allah.

                O Mankind, beware! Do not follow these self-seeking people who defy the divine laws and do not accept what they say, since they are your enemies. It is not Allah’s command that you should hoard everything for yourself and create a society in which some pile up treasures while others have nothing to eat (9:34-35). Allah’s command is that you should leave the means of nurture open to all human beings, so that everyone can take what he needs. Do not attribute to Allah what you have no knowledge of.

                (170) The only defence which these (misled) people have for their unjust system is that it is inherited from their ancestors. Is this a valid defence? Be aware that the book of Allah is the only criterion of right and wrong, truth and falsehood. But they will never accept this criterion. Hence when they are asked to follow what Allah has revealed (in the Qur’an) they will say, “No, we will only follow in the footsteps of our ancestors.” In other words, they will follow in the footsteps of their ancestors even if the latter lacked knowledge and wisdom and did not follow the right path revealed by Allah (5:104, 10:78, 11:62, 11:87, 21:53, 23:24, 34:43, 38:7, 43:23).

                (171) Such an attitude of blind imitation reduces human beings to the level of a herd of sheep and goats led by a shepherd who has learnt some particular calls and words from his elders and uses them to direct his herd. Such are those who blindly follow their forefathers. They are deaf, dumb and blind. How can they be called human beings?

                (172) O Jamat (group)-ul-Momineen (the convinced Muslims)! Beware of such an attitude and note that these people, blindly following their ancestors, have imposed upon themselves various self-created restrictions regarding what is halal (permissible) and haram (prohibited) Allah’s law is that you should enjoy His bounties, partaking of all means of nurture save those things which are prohibited by Him. If you obey this law it will demonstrate that you are, indeed, obedient to Allah and accept no authority other than His.

                (173) Now take note of what Allah has declared to be haram: carrion, flowing blood (6:146), the flesh of swine and that which has been consecrated to someone other than Allah.

                However, if you are faced with a situation when you can find nothing else to eat except the above and your life is threatened by starvation, then you can partake of what has been declared to be haram provided you are acting out of necessity and not out of greed or the desire to violate the divine law. This will not constitute a sin and your development will not be retarded. This is because your invulnerable faith in His absolute laws, will protect you and your potentialities will continue to grow.

                (174-175) This is Allah’s law regarding halal (permissible) and haram (prohibited) as mentioned in 5:3, 5:87, 6:119-120, 6:122, 6:146, 10:59, 16:115-116, 22:30, and 66:1. Those who conceal this law and start compiling their own lists of halal (permissible) and haram (prohibited), assume divine authority and make it a means for attaining worldly gains. Though such people may appear to be very affluent and pious, they are preparing an inferno for themselves. You will see that on the day of judgement they will not receive the blessings which flow from adherence to the divine laws and their potentialities will remain unfulfilled. This will be a dreadful calamity and they will realize, at that time that they had sold their human dignity for a trifling gain because they had traded Allah’s protection for ruin by forsaking the right path for the wrong one. How foolhardy it is to walk towards an inferno of devastation knowingly! Those who do this overestimate their powers of endurance, for the ruin which awaits them will certainly overwhelm them.

                (176) Allah’s book was based on truth and is free from contradictions. Misguided people, however, fabricated a Shariah and proclaiming that this, too, was divine, mixed it with the book of Allah so that contradictions appeared in what was taken to be Allah’s revelation. Such people invariably drift far away from the right path and head towards destruction.

                (177) The fabricated Shariah (civil law) was nothing but a collection of rituals, the observance of which was held to be the purpose of deen (religion; way of life). This is not at all the case. According to the divine law, the essential purpose of deen (way of life) is not fulfilled by a mechanical performance of rituals e.g., turning eastwards or westwards during salat (ritual prayer), but requires:

  1. Eiman (conviction) (belief) in Allah; in the Law of Mukafat (retribution); in the life hereafter; in malaika; in anbiya (prophets) and in the books revealed through the anbiya (2:4); and
  2. Following from the above the establishment of a system in which resources are made available to help those who: are left without protection or support in society; lose their means of livelihood or are incapacitated to work; and cannot earn enough to meet their needs. This system will also provide assistance to those outsiders who, while passing through its territory, become indigent, and arrange for the liberation of slaves from bondage.

                In brief then, you should establish a system wherein members of the society adhere to the divine laws voluntarily and means of development are provided to all who need them. You should honour your promises and commitments. If hostile forces confront you, then face them with steadfastness and fortitude, and do not let fear and despair weaken you.

                Those who follow this path unswervingly vindicate their claim to be true believers and they can rightfully claim to be upholders of divine laws (rather than those who claim to inherit heaven by observing certain rites which they claim is deen (religion; way of life).

                (178) Mark this; the principle according to which it becomes necessary to fight against an oppressor (for the protection of human rights) also requires that punishment is awarded to individual wrong-doers for murder since without this safeguard, human life, which is very valuable (5:32), would not be safe. In this context, the law is that a murderer be punished (i.e., he should be considered a wrongdoer not against particular persons but against the society as a whole).

                In awarding punishment, the basic principles of justice and equity must always be kept in view and no distinction should be made between the great and the humble. What is to be considered is not the status of the person murdered or the murderer, but the principle of justice according to which all human life is equally valuable. (Regardless of the fact whether the murderer is a free male, a slave, or a woman, he or she will receive the punishment for murder and their respective positions in society will not be able to protect them from it.)

                Murder can be with or without intent. In the case of the former, the punishment is death (not ransom money) or, depending upon the nature of the crime, a punishment less severe than the maximum penalty (4:93). In other words, the punishment should be commensurate with the crime (17:33, 42:40). In the case of unintentional murder, the punishment is payment of money as compensation (4:92). If the heirs of the murdered person, voluntarily or out of goodwill, wish to forego the money or a part thereof, they have the right to do so (17:33). In this event, it is necessary that the wrong-doer carries out terms of the agreement faithfully and with good grace. In prescribing lesser punishment for inadvertent murder your creator and sustainer has been lenient so that your potentialities may continue to grow. But any person who acts high-handedly or unfairly, once an agreement has been reached, should be punished severely.

                (179) If you reflect deeply it will become clear to you that the law of retribution provides protection for your individual as well as collective life.

                (180) As regards the disposal of one’s personal property i.e., assets allowed by the Nizam-e-Rabubiyya (universal sustenance), the law is that when you apprehend death, make a valid legal will for your relatives and others close to you. This is a divine imperative for all true believers (the distribution of inheritance will take place after the provisions of the will have been fulfilled (4:11)).

                (181) The will should be made in the presence of two just witnesses (5:106). If a person, having heard an oral will alters it, he becomes liable (in the eyes of the law). Allah hears and knows all.

                (182) If a person has a reasonable fear that the testator has unduly favoured someone, or otherwise committed a mistake, it would not be unlawful, if he brings about a compromise among all concerned. This provision is from Allah who is your protector and nourisher.

                (183-184) Self-control is a prerequisite both for steadfastness and fortitude in the battlefield, as well as for establishing a just and equitable socio-economic system. In other words, in case of a conflict between your physical drives and lofty human values, you should uphold the latter. Furthermore, you should habituate yourself to leading a hard and laborious life. For this purpose fasting has been made obligatory for you as it was for earlier communities, in order that you may live according to the divine laws and protect yourself from the pitfalls of life. Fasting is for a prescribed number of days (as fixation of time itself is an aid to disciplined life). If during Ramadan (the month of fasting) any of you is sick or on a journey (and misses some fasts) he must complete the prescribed number by fasting on other days. But if a person is neither sick nor on a journey yet cannot fast except with great hardship and, therefore, cannot make up missed fasts, he should provide food for a person in need in lieu thereof.

                It is evident that the condition of the last named category of persons cannot be determined by law. It is for you yourself to determine if you are unable to fast except with great hardship. If on assessing your own condition you conclude that the odds are even, then it is better for you to fast even if it is (relatively) hard for you, because the purpose which is served by fasting cannot be attained by providing food to another, provided you understand the rationale for fasting.

                (185) Here the question arises as to why the month of Ramadan (the month of fasting) was chosen for this collective (as well as individual) exercise in self-discipline. The answer is that Ramadan is the month during which the revelation of the Qur’an began which shows all humanity the clear path leading to its ultimate goal, revealing those permanent values whereby one can distinguish truth from falsehood. The discipline learned through fasting is an annual training to remain in a state of preparedness for the accomplishment of this lofty programme. Hence a person who is at home during this month should fast. If a person is sick or on a journey, he should, as already stated, complete the prescribed number of fasts by fasting on other days. Allah wants to make things easy for you and does not want to subject you to hardship and difficulties. Mark again that fasting is not a mere rite. Its purpose is to enable you to establish on the one hand supremacy of the divine laws in the world, in the light of the guidance given to you (9:33), and on the other to enable you to nourish your own potentialities.

                (186)  In the context of the obligation to fast, do not think that by restricting the fulfilling of human needs to prescribed times and by abstaining from material indulgences, one is attaining closeness to Allah (as was believed to be the case amongst monastic cults). (O Rasool (Messenger of God)!) When My devotees ask you about Me, tell them that I am close to them at all times. (This means that) when anyone calls upon Me to lead him to the right path, My guidance which is preserved in the Qur’an, answers his call. Therefore, tell them that the way to attain the nearness of Allah is to adhere to My laws fully, believing implicitly in their validity (7:56, 8:24, 32:15-16, 40:60, 42:26). By following these laws they will be able to walk firmly upon the right path of life.

                (187) Take note that fasting is only from dawn to dusk(7). During other hours, eating, drinking or having sexual intercourse with one’s wife is not prohibited. The relationship between the two spouses is a most intimate one. Monasticism engendered the concept of celibacy as a means of attaining closeness to Allah, but He is well aware of the importance of the intimate relationship between spouses in fulfilling human needs, and also the perversions, fantasies and self-deception to which renunciation of marital relationships lead (57:21). Human beings may set unnatural limits upon themselves,

but Allah’s law rising above all such limits, dispels your doubts and anxieties and makes it clear that in the hours from dusk to dawn you are permitted to cohabit with your wives, as well as partake of food and drink. From dawn to dusk you are required to fast. If after dusk you are detained at your centre (of training or activity e.g., mosque) in order

to ponder or resolve some important issue or problem, then you should devote your total attention to the task in hand and refrain from going home.

                These are the laws laid down by Allah regarding matters which have been discussed above. You should adhere to them. Allah explains His laws clearly so that people can fully understand and follow them.

                (188) (As mentioned earlier) always keep this fact in mind that the purpose of fasting is to create in you self-discipline by means of which you can distinguish between what is lawful and unlawful in all spheres of life and to reject the latter no matter how strongly you are attracted to it. For instance, do not devour another’s property or bribe officials to give you that which belongs to another person when you are aware of the consequences that follow from acquiring anything unfairly. The purpose of fasting is, thus, to develop your personality in the manner described above.

                (189) We have stated earlier that fasting is during the month of Ramadan. This has led some people to think that some months are auspicious and some are inauspicious and they have referred the matter to you. O Rasool (Messenger of God)! Say to them that it is mere superstition to call some months (or days) auspicious or inauspicious. In fact, specification of time is only to determine the calendar. The advantage of having a calendar is obvious – for instance, it enables you to know when the Hajj (the annual international convention) is to be performed. Tell them clearly that superstition has no place in deen (religion; way of life). For instance, the belief that during Hajj (the annual international convention), the house should be entered from the back, and not from the front-door is only a superstition. Righteousness is not associated with such rites. It is concerned only with the degree to which you adhere to the divine laws and with the sublimity of your character. Therefore, set aside such ignorant practices and enter houses during the Hajj (the annual Pilgrimage) as you do during other days.

                Follow the divine laws and live according to your normal routine. This is the way to achieve success and bliss in life.

                (190) Warfare is not permitted during certain months (2:217, 9:36). This does not mean that in other months you can wage war against whosoever you like without due cause. The laws of Allah, and not your expediencies and vested interests, will be the determining factor in conducting war or concluding peace. In this context the fundamental principle is that you should only fight those who commit aggression against you and leave you no option but to fight (22:39). This war will be in the way of Allah i.e., for the protection of humanity from tyranny and oppression – but even in this war the limits of law must not be transgressed, for such transgression is against the laws of Allah.

                (191) When circumstances are such that you are forced to fight, confront your enemies wherever you find them, and expel them from the places from which they expelled you. You should do this because tyranny and mischief cause more damage to humanity than war. However, bear in mind that We have declared the Ka’bah (the House of God) to be a sanctuary (2:125).

                 Therefore, do not fight in its vicinity, but if the enemy does not desist from fighting even in that area, fight back because those who do not honour accepted rules and regulations must be resisted.

                (192) But if they stop fighting, you also should stop. (The purpose of the discipline inculcated through fasting was to train you to advance when it was so ordered and to halt when so asked, regardless of the advantages to be gained by advancing.) Note that, if you adhere to the laws of Allah in this manner, He will provide you with abundant means for your security and development.

                (193) Observing these limits and conditions set by Allah, you should fight your enemies until you have dissipated the mischief they have caused, and created an environment where no compulsion or oppression is exercised in matters of deen (religion; way of life) (2:256, 22:40).

                 Whenever you see that your enemies have given up this mischief, you should cease to fight with them (because the purpose of war is to prevent forces of oppression and lawlessness from spreading and once this purpose is achieved there is no need for further warfare).

                (194) If there is a break in warfare, the chances for peace and reconciliation become brighter. For this reason, some months have been specified in which war is not permitted. However, war is between two opposing parties and cessation of war must be reciprocal. If one party violates the agreement not to fight, the other is released from it automatically. In short, adhere to the laws of Allah in all matters believing that those who do so have the support of Allah and are rewarded with success.

                (195) Wars disrupt the economic system of a society. This must not happen, otherwise you will be ruined. For this purpose place your resources at the disposal of the system established by the civil administration. Allah loves mohsineen (beautifiers).

                (196) It is obvious that continuous struggle is required for the establishment and consolidation of a system of law and equity. For this purpose, it is necessary that you should have periodic meetings, such as Hajj (the annual international convention) and Umra (special, emergency conference).

                The venue of these meetings should be the Ka’bah (the House of God), which is the centre of your system. If at any time you are prevented from going there you should send whatever you can, as offering to be used by those who have assembled there. To maintain homogeneity with this assembly you should perform similar rites to the ones performed by the assembly, e.g., do not shave your head until your offerings have reached there, but if you are ill or have some ailment in the head then you can fast, give a donation or an offering in lieu of shaving your head.

                In times of peace when you perform Hajj and Umra  you can take your gift with you. If you cannot afford to take a gift, fast for three days during Hajj (the annual international convention) and for another seven days upon your return. This is for those whose family is not in Makkah.

                Note again that the purpose of these meetings is mutual consultation for the consolidation of the divine system. As far as rituals are concerned, their purpose is to create homogeneity amongst the members of society. Beyond that they have no purpose, they are not an end in itself – and whoever considers them so, should remember that the result would be sheer destruction as the law of Allah is severe in retribution.

                (197) The timing of Hajj (the annual international convention) is prescribed and known to all. Whoever undertakes to perform this duty should be careful not to do anything demeaning or obscene e.g., use of harsh or vulgar language or unnecessary wrangling. Instead he should do whatever good he can (22:28). He should also possess enough means to meet the necessary expenses of travelling to and from Makkah and to maintain himself during the meeting.

                O men of understanding! Be mindful of these instructions.

                (198) Keep in mind that the mutual consultations which take place during these meetings do not exclude discussion of business and trade as well as other economic affairs of the ummah (the Muslim fraternity).

                When you return from Arafat(8) where you have been introduced to one another, assemble again near Muzdalfa and reflect upon the various aspects of the divine system.

                We are giving you these instructions in detail because before Islam you were ignorant of the purpose of Hajj (the annual international convention) and Umra (special, emergency conference).

                (199) When the proceedings have ended, you should return to your own lands (without feeling that you are any different from other people) and think of ways to make your ummah (the Muslim fraternity) secure and self-sufficient according to the programme settled in the aforesaid assembly. This way, Allah will surely bestow His protection and rahma (mercy) on you.

                (200) In earlier days during your assemblies you used to talk about your ancestors boastfully. (Your talk made the common people feel inferior, so obviously they could not participate in it.) Now on return from the assembly you should talk about Allah’s guidance instead. Moreover, people who consider worldly gains an end in itself do get such benefits, but have no share in the hereafter.

                201-202 You will find two kinds of people in the world: the sole aim in life of the first kind is to find prosperity in this world and they do not even think about the hereafter; the other kind, however, yearn not only for bliss in this world but also to be protected from disaster in the hereafter. Both kinds shall have what they have worked for. According to Allah’s Law of Mukafat (retribution), each human action produces its result simultaneously although the latter may not be perceptible for some time.

                (203) The Hajj (the annual international convention) assembly should be for a prescribed number of days. If anyone has to depart due to some special reason, he may do so after two days and if anyone wishes to stay longer he may do so provided what is done is in the interest of the divine system. And remember that one day you shall all be gathered unto Him.

                (204) Again you will find two kinds of people in the world. The sole objective of life for the first kind is to seek worldly gains. They speak of worldly affairs so persuasively that one is fascinated by their talk. They repeatedly swear by Allah in order to authenticate what they say, though their hearts are full of enmity towards the divine system.

                (205) When these people gain power, they spread chaos in the land destroying fields and human beings, Allah does not like what they do (27:34).

                (206) When they are asked to abide by the divine laws, their power-intoxication and false pride impels them towards greater destruction. Their end is utter ruin (27:14).

                (207) The second kind dedicate themselves to accomplishing Allah’s purpose, and gladly make whatever sacrifice is necessary to attain that goal. These are the people who have the support of Allah’s laws.

                (208) O Jamat (group)-ul-Momineen (the convinced Muslims)! You should adopt Allah’s system in its entirety and also continue your struggle until it is accomplished fully (2:85).

                Do not follow in the footsteps of Satan, for he is your avowed enemy.

                (209) We have given you the code of life in clear terms. If after having received it, your steps falter from the right path, do not think that you will not be held accountable for your actions. Like others, you will also be judged by Our Law of Mukafat (retribution) which prevails over all.

                (210) When it is said to your adversaries that the consequences of your actions will be ruinous, they assume that the final judgement will be delivered by Allah and His malaika (celestial forces) appearing in glory amidst the clouds. Tell them that this is not how Allah destroys wrong-doers. The natural consequences of wrong actions take the form of destruction.

                (211) This is corroborated by the history of the Bani- Israel (Children of Israel). When they adhered to Allah’s laws they were prosperous, but when they repudiated them, their blessings turned into disgrace and ignominy (14:28).

                (212) Those persons who seek only worldly gains as their life’s objective find them most alluring and they mock those who, seeking higher values, appear to them to be lacking in wealth and strength in the initial stages of their struggle, because they do not use foul methods to get worldly gains. But ultimately, when the divine system is established, the latter will gain superiority over the former and receive bounties much greater than their adversaries. At that time, this reality will also become clearly known to all that, the people who want to acquire wealth in accordance with the laws of Allah. are bestowed wealth beyond counting. (This is sheer ignorance of man that he, in the initial stages, gets perturbed due to some hardship and adopts dishonest ways, and thinks that he will achieve great success like this.)

                (213) Not only the history of the Bani- Israel (Children of Israel) but that of humanity at large bears witness to what has been stated above. As mentioned in the story of Adam (2:30), originally mankind was a single community, free of dissension. Then, human beings created differences amongst themselves (10:19) and since these differences could not be resolved by means of the human intellect alone, Allah sent a series of anbiya (prophets) and books for this purpose, who would give them glad tidings, provided they lived together as one family, and warn them about the consequences of a disintegrated society, and resolve their differences in accordance with the revealed book. After the departure of the anbiya (prophets) who had accomplished their appointed tasks, their followers again created differences amongst themselves in their desire to outdo and out-strive each other. Those from amongst them who followed Allah’s guidance were able to resolve their differences. This is how Allah, according to His laws, shows the right path to those who seek it (2:136, 3:83, 3:183, 16:92,  57:25).

                (214) O the convinced Muslims, the ideal social system which will be free of dissension will not be created without great hardship and difficulty. Those who established this system earlier, met with such formidable obstacles that they cried out, “When will our efforts bear fruit, O Allah (3:141, 9:16, 13:40, 29:2, 33:10)?” You will also have to confront similar obstructions, but be sure that your efforts will be rewarded as were theirs.

                (215) The first stage of your struggle involves financial sacrifice. O Rasool (Messenger of God)! Your companions ask you as to how much money is required and where it is to be spent. Tell them, that the programme will be initiated within a circle of persons needing your help e.g., your parents, other relatives, those who are left without support, those whose running businesses become immobilized, and wayfarers. Allah will take note of whatever you do to help them.

                (216) During the next stage of your struggle, you may be asked to sacrifice even your life. Under certain conditions, war is made obligatory upon you. It is possible that this obligation may seem burdensome to you but you must not let your individual feelings determine what is good or bad for you. The criterion for determining what is good or bad is the value system revealed by Allah. What might appear to you to be good may be otherwise according to this criterion and vice versa. Allah alone knows what is, in reality, good or bad.

                (217) One of the conditions under which war is permitted is that it should not be waged during the prohibited months. But, far more serious crimes than waging war are preventing people from following Allah’s laws, or rejecting these laws, or fighting in the sanctuary and expelling those who have sought refuge there. Your adversaries will not desist from war till they turn you away from your deen (religion; way of life). Beware that the actions of those who do so and die in a state of kufr (denial), will be rendered waste and they will suffer ruin in this world as well as in the hereafter (5:54). In fact these people are destined for the fire and will abide therein.

                (218) Contrary to them, those who believe in the divine system, who undertake Hijra (migration), and who struggle hard for the cause of Allah, are the people who can rightfully expect Allah’s blessings and receive them.

                (219) O Rasool (Messenger of God)! Your companions ask you about the use of those things which benumb the human intellect e.g., wine and about easily acquired money. These things are beneficial to some degree but the damage they do is far in excess of the benefit.

                They also ask you as to how much they should spare for the help of others. Say: all that is surplus to your needs(9) (7:199).

                In this way Allah makes His laws clear to you so that you may reflect upon matters relating to this world as well as the hereafter.

                (220) And they also ask you about those who have been left alone e.g., orphans. Tell them that the best thing is to set their affairs in order and if you wish to manage them conjointly with your own kindred, bear in mind that they are your kindred and Allah knows who are musliheen (those who promote order) and who are mufsideen (those who promote disorder).

                (221) If Allah had not given you such guidance you would have faced difficulties (2:185) but beware that Allah’s Law of Mukafat (retribution) has control over all things, based on wisdom.

                The ideal social system which you wish to establish should begin with your family life. Here, the fundamental question is what should be the criterion for the selection of spouse. The criterion should be unanimity of ideology and purpose. It follows from this that a Muslim man should not marry a mushrik (polytheist) woman until she accepts

Islam. A Muslim woman who is a slave(10) is better than a free mushrik woman no matter how pleasing she is. Likewise, Muslim women should not marry mushrik men until they accept Islam. A Muslim man who is a slave is better than a free mushrik man, regardless of how pleasing he is. It is evident that marriage between persons of differing ideologies makes family life a veritable hell. On the other hand, marriage between spouses with a similar ideology creates a paradise-like family life. Such laws of Allah bestow on you a happy home life and protect you from various unpleasant things. You should keep this law of Allah in mind while deciding such matters.

                (222) They ask you about (sexual intercourse during) menstruation. Tell them to refrain from it since during this period women are not in their normal physical condition. When this period is over, approach them in the manner suggested by Allah’s natural law.

                If you did not act thus before, do so now. Allah’s law approves of those who forsake the wrong path and adopt the right one.

                (223) Your wives are like a land which produces a harvest. You should cohabit when both spouses desire to do so. But keep this in mind that procreation is not the sole purpose of life. You should also see what you have sowed here is to be reaped in the hereafter according to the laws of Allah. You should keep in mind that the hereafter is a reality and glad tidings are for those who adhere to Allah’s laws.

                (224-225) There are some people who when asked to cooperate in doing virtuous things, acting rightly and promoting peace between men, say that they have taken an

oath not to participate in such activities. Allah holds you accountable only for the oaths taken with serious intent and not for frivolous oaths. He is forbearing and provides protection.

                (226-227) Keeping this principle in mind take the case of those men who vow not to go to their wives. They are given a period of four months for reconsideration. If within this period they choose to resume their relations they are permitted to do so. This provision is from Allah who is Ghafoor (forgiver) and Raheem (merciful). If they decide to dissolve their marriage (they should proceed in accordance with the divine law, as described in – 4:35), most certainly Allah is all-hearing, all-knowing.              (228) Divorced women should not remarry until they have completed three menstrual cycles. Those who do not menstruate due to old age or some physical disorder should also wait for three months (65:4) and those whose marriage has not been consummated have no waiting period, (33:49).) If a woman is pregnant she must make this fact known. (The waiting period for a pregnant woman is until the delivery (65:4).

                If the dissolution of marriage was initiated by the husband and he wishes, of course with the consent of his wife, to resume the marital relationship, he may do so even within the waiting period.

                There is no waiting period for the husband – this is the only advantage he has over the wife who has to wait for three months before remarriage (the rationale for this is obvious). Excepting this, the rights and responsibilities of men and women are the same in all spheres of life. These laws have been prescribed by Allah whose power blends with reason and wisdom.

                (229-230) Take note that when dissolution of marriage takes place for the first time, it is possible either to finalize the dissolution or resume marital relationship. According to law if marital relationship is resumed and dissolution takes place once again, then also it is permissible either to finalize the dissolution or resume marital ties. However, if marital ties are resumed and dissolution takes place for the third time, then remarriage is not permissible. The only exception to this is as follows: if the woman marries another man and dissolution takes place, then it is permissible for her to remarry her former husband. These are the limitations imposed by Allah’s laws, do not transgress them and whoever does so, would be held guilty in the eyes of the law. (Dissolution of a marriage is a serious matter and should not take place without due consideration.)

                In the case of dissolution of marriage, you are not permitted to take away anything from what you have given to the wife. But if this factor becomes an impediment to dissolution of marriage, the wife may agree to forego what is hers. These are the limitations imposed by Allah and explained clearly to those who understand and have innate knowledge.

                (231) When the waiting period of divorced women is nearing its end, it should be finally decided whether or not they should be retained according to the law (this decision should be announced in the presence of two witnesses – 65:2).

                If they are retained it should not be with the intention to cause them harm or to transgress the limits imposed by Allah; whosoever harms them will, in fact, harm himself. You must not make a jest of the divine law. It is a blessing from Allah that He has given you this code of law and explained its underlying purposes, and He advises you to adhere to this code and always keep in mind the purpose behind doing so.

                (232) When divorced women are nearing the end of the waiting period and both spouses desire to reunite, you should not create hindrances for them. This counsel is given to those who believe in Allah and the hereafter. If you follow it, it will lead you to decency and purity. This is the law of Allah who knows all, whereas you do not.

                (233) In case of dissolution of marriage, the mother should suckle the infant for a maximum period of two years (31:14, 46:15). If she does so, her maintenance becomes the responsibility of her former husband who should provide for her according to his means. Neither the mother nor the father should be made to suffer on account of the child. In the case of the father’s death, the responsibility for maintenance devolves upon his heirs.

                If both parents agree, the suckling period may be terminated earlier and arrangements may be made to have the child suckled by another woman. If the suckling period is terminated earlier the full amount of maintenance promised to the woman must be given. Be mindful of the laws of Allah who knows what you do.

                (234) The waiting period for widows is four months and ten days. When this period is nearing its end, they are free to decide what they want to do. You are not responsible for their decision. And Allah is well aware of whatever you do.

                (235) During the waiting period, you cannot marry that woman but you can consider the possibility of marriage inwardly or let her know about your wishes by suggestion. Do not however, hold out any promise to her in private except in conventional terms nor resolve on marriage until the period prescribed is completed. Allah knows what is in your mind. The purpose of this directive is to protect you from the harmful consequences of unrestrained behaviour.

                (236) In case dissolution of marriage takes place before it has been consummated and the dower has not yet been fixed, you should still, as an act of kindness, make some provision for the divorced woman, according to your means (33:49). This, in fact is the duty of mohsineen (beautifiers).

                (237) If the marriage has not been consummated but the dower has been fixed, you must pay one-half of the dower in case of dissolution of marriage unless it be that they forego their claim or the party concerned who has initiated the divorce foregoes the claim. And to forego what is due to you is nearer to taqwa (attachment to Islam). And forget not that you have to act with grace towards one another – surely Allah sees all that you do.

                (238-239) You should fulfil the responsibilities which have been prescribed above. However, this is not all. There are other responsibilities which are more crucial to the Nizam-us-Sala (the Qur’anic system). These responsibilities should be fulfilled according to circumstances prevailing during the state of danger or peace. Allah(11) has given you this guidance – which you did not have before.

                (240) Reverting to family laws, men should leave a will behind, stating that their widows should be given maintenance for a year without requiring them to leave their homes. However, if during this period, the women, of their own accord, leave their home and make a decision regarding their future life, you are not to be blamed for it. And remember that these laws are given by

Allah Who is almighty, wise.

                (241-242) Provisions should also be made for divorced women during the waiting period as stated elsewhere (2:231, 65:1-2, 65:6). Thus Allah makes His commandments clear to you so that you may be able to understand them.

                These rules constitute the limitations imposed by Allah (it will be the responsibility of the Qur’anic order to devise the working details thereof).

                (243) It was mentioned earlier (2:216-218) that you will have to confront mighty forces which stand in the way of the establishment of the divine order. To confront external problems successfully, it is necessary that domestic conditions should be conducive to peace. For this reason, rules relating to the organization of family life were given (2:221-242). Now let us return to the original subject. Have you pondered the case of those who, though thousands in number, left their homes and ran away when they were confronted by the enemy? Because they were afraid of death, they were overtaken by it. This happened because they forgot what the secret of life is: only he lives who is not afraid of death (2:94) and one who runs away from death, is overtaken by it. When they understood this secret and provided the evidence by confronting the enemy, they were infused with new life. This is the basic law according to which superiority is given to some people but most of them do not appreciate and do not feel grateful.

                (244) Therefore, O the convinced Muslims, you should fight in the cause of Allah and know that He hears whatever you say to one another and knows fully well what you do.

                (245) Finances will also be needed for the consolidation of your order. Whatever you give for this purpose will come back to you with manifold returns. Mind it! Give and take should always be according to Allah’s laws towards which you should always look.

                (246) You should recall that event in the history of the Bani-Israel (Children of Israel) when their leaders asked their Nabi (prophet) after Moses to appoint a commander so that they could fight under his command in the cause of Allah. The Nabi asked them to reconsider their offer seriously lest they desist from war once the orders for it had been given. They said, “What ails us that we should not fight when we have been expelled from our homes and torn apart from our children?”

                However what the Nabi had apprehended came to pass when they were ordered to fight. Except for a few, they turned back, Allah knows well about those who act like this.

                (247-248) Anyhow, they repeated their request for a commander and their Nabi (prophet) told them that Allah had appointed Taloot (Saul) as their commander. They immediately responded by saying, “How can a man like Saul be our commander? We are more deserving than he. He is a poor man.” The Nabi said, “Wealth is not the criterion for appointing a commander. Saul possesses more knowledge and physical prowess than others do. This is the law of Allah according to which He selects one for a position of authority and this law is based on His infinite knowledge and not according to your self-made standards.” The Nabi continued, “Since Saul will use his powers in accordance with Allah’s laws, the immediate result of his leadership will be that your hearts will be rid of the fear of the enemy and you will become tranquil and contented. Secondly, he will recover the relics left by the descendants of Moses and Aaron from their capture and restore them to you. All this should furnish ample proof that Saul’s selection is indeed the right one.”

                (249) When Saul marched forward with his forces, he said to them, “Do not drink the water from the stream which comes in the way except to moisten your lips and throat. This is a test to see who is worthy of remaining with us and who is not.” Yet, barring a few, all drank out of it. When they crossed the stream and confronted the enemy they told Saul that they had no strength to fight the army of Goliath.

                Now those who were firm in their belief said to them, “Do not be afraid of the enemy’s numbers. How often has a small host prevailed over a larger adversary? What matters is who follows Allah’s laws and remains steadfast.”

                (250) When they confronted the forces of Jaloot (Goliath), they prayed to Allah, “O Our Sustainer! Invest us with due steadfastness and firmness and give us victory over those people who defy Your laws.”

                (251) So they inflicted a crushing defeat upon their opponents and David killed Jaloot (Goliath). Later on, Allah bestowed authority and wisdom upon David and gave him knowledge based on revelation.

                The moral of Saul’s story is that if Allah did not check oppressive forces through others, there would be chaos.

                (It is to be noted that Allah’s intervention is not direct but through the agency of human beings – 22:40.) In this way the checking of the oppressive forces is Allah’s boon towards all people.

                (252) Such are Allah’s laws based upon truth which He communicates to you, O Rasool (Messenger of God), through revelation. You are truly of the order of the rusul (messengers).

                (253) No distinction is made amongst the rusul mentioned in the Qur’an so far as their nabuwwa (prophethood) is concerned (2:285). However, they are differentiated from each other by virtue of their spheres of activity. To some Allah spoke directly (e.g., Moses – 4:164, 7:143-144 and 42:51) and some were elevated above others in certain respects, among them is Jesus, son of Mary (Maryam). To him, We had given Revelation (Ruhul Qudus (the sacred Spirit) in an authentic form which was corroborated by reason. This gave him great strength and confidence (2:87).

                If it had been Allah’s will to create human beings without freedom of will, the followers of various rusul (messengers) would not have differed amongst themselves or waged wars against each other after they had received clear guidance through their anbiya (prophets). They differed and split into two classes: one who accepted divine laws and others who rejected them. Mark again! If Allah had not bestowed freedom of will upon human beings they would not have differed or waged wars amongst themselves. This is also His law and Allah does whatever He wills.

                (254) Differences amongst human beings can be overcome if they subordinate their wills to divine guidance and establish a Qur’anic order. To do that, financial support is required.

                O Jamat (group)-ul-Momineen (the convinced Muslims)! Make every effort to establish this order before it is too late and the time comes when no bargaining, friendship, or intercession will be possible. And those who deny the truth are the ones who bring suffering to themselves.

                (255) This order belongs to Allah who is the sole authority in the universe; who is ever-living and self-subsisting and who is seized neither by slumber nor sleep. The entire universe is engaged in fulfilling His plan. Who is there who can intercede with Him unless it is in accordance with His laws? Allah knows the past and present of all people and no one can partake of His knowledge except through the method prescribed by Him. Allah’s authority encompasses the entire universe which He maintains untiringly. His power extends from the lowest to the highest level of His creation.

                (256) If Allah, the possessor of such might, had so desired, His order could have been established in the human sphere as it is in the natural sphere, but He did not wish to exercise compulsion. He made the right and wrong path clear and left man free to choose either path (18:29, 76:3, 90:10). Whoever turns away from the wrong path of oppressive forces and comes to the right one has grasped the most trustworthy handhold which will never break. Allah is all-knowing and all-hearing.

                (257) Allah is the Guardian of momin (the convinced Muslim) and brings them from darkness towards light. Oppressive forces are the guardians of those who reject Allah’s laws and take them from light into darkness. Ruin and disaster is their everlasting end.

                (258) O Jamat (group)-ul-Momineen! You will face great difficulties in the establishment of the divine order as was the case with Abraham. The king himself was Abraham’s adversary and disputed even the existence of Allah merely on the basis of his worldly power. Abraham told the king that he believed in Allah Who has control over life and death. The king said that in his kingdom he had control over life and death. Seeing the king’s mentality, Abraham did not pursue the point but said, “If you have supreme authority in your kingdom, you should make the sun, which rises in the east in accordance with Allah’s law, come out from the west.” The king was dumbfounded by Abraham’s argument.

                Persons with such a mentality seldom adopt the right path.

                (259) (From laws relating to an individual’s life and death we now move to the laws relating to the life and death of nations.) As is known in history, after the destruction of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar, the Bani- Israel (Children of Israel) lived in captivity for about a hundred years. Then they were liberated and re-established in Jerusalem. This story has been narrated in the Qur’an symbolically as follows: A person passing through a ruined habitation asked if such a devastated place could have new life. Allah kept him in a death-like state for a hundred years, then gave him new life and asked him, “How long have you remained in this state?” He replied, “May be a day or so.” Allah said to him, “You have been in this state for a hundred years but your food and drink has not gone bad and your ass is still standing as before. You should also reflect upon the process by which man develops from the embryonic state to where he becomes a living human being.”

                When the passer-by had reflected upon the parable, he said, “Now I can understand how Allah can give life to dead nations.”

                (260) Each Nabi (prophet) has been confronted with the problem of giving life to a dead nation. For instance, Abraham faced such a problem and said to Allah, “What is the process by which new life may be infused into a dead nation?” Allah asked him, “Do you not believe that dead nations may receive new life?” Abraham said, “I do believe but I would like to know by what process, so that I can undertake it with full confidence.” Allah explained the process to Abraham through an example. He said, “Take four untamed birds. At first, they will seek to get away from you. Make them familiar with yourself gradually. This will bring about a remarkable change in them. Even if you set them free and call to them, they will come to you swiftly.” This is how you must patiently reform those who rebel against your call and bring them close to yourself and make them understand and appreciate the divine system. This is how they will receive life. Most certainly Allah is all-mighty, wise.

                (261) As already stated, financial help is needed for the establishment of this order. This help may be likened to the seeds which are sown in a field. In time, each seed will produce a rich harvest; likewise, Allah grants manifold increase to him who spends out of his possessions. And Allah is all-embracing, all-knowing.

                (262) Those who spend and keep open their possessions for the establishment of this order, do not thereafter mar their spending by stressing their own benevolence and hurting the feelings of the needy ones. Surely their reward is with their Rabb (sustainer). And when the order is established there will be no fear of anything, nor any cause of anxiety for all of them.

                (263) Better than giving help followed by taunts is to refuse help in a kindly manner. And Allah is self-sufficient, forbearing.

                (264) O the convinced Muslims! If you give help, do not nullify it by stressing the favour you have done, thus inflicting [psychological and emotional] injury upon the recipients of your help. This is done by those who do not believe in Allah and the hereafter and give charity for the purpose of showing off their wealth. This kind of help is like a rock thinly coated by soil from which the rain washes away the soil along with the seed, leaving the rock bare. Such efforts bear no fruit and the right path does not appear before these people (56:66-67, 68:17-32).

                (265) On the other hand, those who spend their wealth in the cause of Allah and for strengthening their personality, may be likened to a garden on an elevated place which will yield twice as much of fruit if it rains heavily, but will produce a harvest even if it rains lightly. Allah sees all that you do.

                (266) Would any one of you wish to find yourself in the situation of a man who owns orchards of dates and grapes with streams flowing therein and is assured that he and his children will have a secure future? When he grows old, however, and his children are still young, a fiery wind destroys his orchards. What, then, will happen to him and his children? In this way Allah makes clear His laws so that you may reflect upon them.

                (267) Therefore, O Jamat-(group)-ul-Momineen (the convinced Muslims), keep the best part of what you earn or grow for the system and do not think of giving away useless things which you do not think are worth their price. Take note that what you give is given not to Allah but to yourselves, for He is self-sufficient and worthy of all hamd (praise).

                (268) Your selfish sentiments will frighten you by persuading you that if you give away to others what you have, you will be reduced to poverty, and they will teach you to collect wealth by indecent means. Take note, however, that the divine system will ensure protection against any calamities, and provide abundant means of livelihood for Allah is all-embracing, all-knowing.

                (269) One cannot understand these matters by means of intellect alone but can through the intellect guided by Revelation. Such an insight is a blessing from Allah, but none would bear this in mind except men of understanding (16:30, 17:39, 28:50, 30:29).

                (270) Whatever you spend for the system or the services you offer (9:79, 76:7) is taken into account by the Law of Mukafat (retribution). Those who fail to fulfil their obligations shall have no helpers.

                (271) If you give help openly for the collective good of the people it is all right, but if (during the initial stages of this nizam [system]) you give it quietly to the needy people, it is still better. Helping others, in fact, assists you in removing the unevenness in your own personality and the society. Allah, however, is aware of all that you do.

                (272) O Rasool (Messenger of God)! It is not your responsibility to make people follow the right path (5:99, 28:56). One adopts the right path voluntarily in the light of divine guidance (6:149, 10:99-100, 43:20). You must simply tell the people that whatever they spend for others in this context will be returned to them in full and also help in the development of their personality, provided the motive for spending is nothing other than the establishment of the divine order and achieving conformity with His laws. Be sure that you will not be wronged in this behalf.

                (273) Your help is not to be given to beggars. It is for those who are fighting in the cause of Allah but have been deprived of the means of livelihood by adverse circumstances and are also unable to move to another place. These people have so much self-respect that their need is not known to anyone who is not well-acquainted with them. Their appearance, however, bespeaks their condition. They do not grovel before others seeking alms. And whatever you spend on them out of His bounties, Allah is certainly aware (of its motives and how far it satisfies the needs of its recipients).

                (274) Those who spend in the cause of Allah, openly or secretly, help to create the divine order in which there is no fear or anxiety.

                (275) On the one hand, there are people who go to the extent of curtailing their own needs to help others (59:9), and on the other, there are those who exploit the needy. They give loans charging interest (riba – usury; interest). This is due to lust for money which is an affliction with the touch of Satan.

                Those who take riba – usury; interest justify it by saying that it is a form of trade. Allah has declared trade to be lawful and riba – usury; interest to be unlawful.

                If anyone refrains from taking riba – usury; interest after Allah’s law has become known, he will not be held accountable for what he has done in the past, but if he reverts to the practice of taking riba usury, interest, he will head towards the inferno of destruction to abide therein.

                (276) Those who think that a nation’s capital is increased by means of riba – usury; interest are mistaken. An economy based upon riba – usury, interest, in fact, reduces a nation’s wealth. The wealth which increases is that which is spent for the welfare of others. And Allah does not permit those to flourish who conceal His bounties (to the deprivation of others) and thus persist in contributing to the deterioration of the system.

                (277) Those who believe in, and act in accordance with, the laws of Allah and establish the order of sala and zaka (universal growth), will not have any fear or anxiety for this order would be established as a result of their actions and, for this, their reward would lie with their Rabb (sustainer).

                (278-279) O Jamat (group)-ul-Momin  (the convinced Muslims)! Abide by Allah’s laws and forego whatever portion of riba (usury, interest) remains owing. This will show that you are true believers. If you do not do this, be prepared for war with the divine order. If you forego riba – usury; interest and claim only the principal amount, this will be fair both to you and to the debtor; neither will be wronged.

                (280) If the debtor is in straitened circumstances, give him respite until it becomes convenient for him to repay your loan. But if you forego the loan, it will be even better for you, if you could only understand.

                (281) Beware of that day of reckoning when each person will receive what he has worked for in full and it will not be diminished in any way.

                (282) Matters relating to giving of loans for a particular period, should be committed to writing. The scribe should not refuse to write, and should write justly. Let him who is receiving the loan dictate and let the scribe keep Allah’s laws in mind and not diminish aught thereof.

                But if the debtor is mentally deficient or infirm or unable to dictate himself, let his guardian dictate with fairness and let two witnesses be called from among your men. If two men are not available then a man and two women from among such as are acceptable to you as witness should be called so that if the one whose evidence is being recorded gets confused or forgets some point, the other might refresh her memory(12). Let not the witnesses refuse to

give evidence when summoned.

                Do not show reluctance to writing down the transaction be it large or small. This is the fairest procedure according to the law of Allah and is most suitable for eliminating doubt. But, if it is a matter of give and take on the spot, there is no blame if it is not committed to writing. However, if it is a matter of trade-dealing then you must have witnesses, and let no harm be done either to the scribe or the witnesses. It will be wickedness on your part if you do so. Allah, who knows everything, has given you these instructions.

                (283) If you are on a journey and do not find a scribe, take something as a token of pledge. If you trust each other, let the one who is trusted fulfil his trust and thereby safeguard the law of his Rabb (sustainer). Do not conceal what you have witnessed. If you do so (even if the people do not come to know and you remain a respectable person in their eyes), your own heart would continue to curse you and this will harm the development of your self – because nothing remains hidden from Allah’s Law of Mukafat (retribution). Allah knows whatever you do.

                (284) The entire universe is engaged in accomplishing Allah’s programme. One of its objectives is that no human action should remain unaccounted for (34:3-4, 45:22, 53:31). Whether you conceal or reveal your actions, it makes no difference to the Law of Mukafat (retribution). Results will be produced according to your actions for which Allah has prescribed the measures.

                (285) These laws have been revealed by Allah. The Rasool (Messenger of God), as well as the Jamat (group)-ul-Momineen (the convinced Muslims), profess eiman (conviction) in Allah, in malaika (celestial forces) and in rusul and in His books, and do not differentiate between the rusul (2:136). They say, “We have heard and we obey. Each step we take is directed towards the divinely-appointed goal.”

                (286) By obeying these laws, the human personality is broadened(13). Whatever one does while keeping in mind one’s own interest as well as of others, helps to develop his personality, whereas whatever is done simply for one’s own interest retards his development. So the believers pray to Allah:

                “O Allah! Do not call us to account if we have forgotten what we ought to do or have fallen into error. May we not be buried under the weight of man-made laws as were our predecessors! Give us the strength to bear the responsibilities vested in us. If we falter, give us the ability to undo the harm caused, by means of good actions. This is how we will be able to secure protection as well as means of development.

                O Allah! You are our Protector. Grant us success against the kafireen (deniers/ disbelievers) who oppose Your system.”


(1)          The Qur’an, after the ‘Opener’ (Faatiha), begins with “This is the book which…. This indicates that the Qur’an was already in the form of a book (bound leaves) before the Messenger died.  The commonly held belief that the Qur’an was gathered and bound into book-form after the Messenger’s death appears contradictory to the Qur’anic evidence. Thus, the Qur’an was gathered and bound into a book during Muhammad’s (PBUH) lifetime.

(2)          Muttaqee: a person who keeps away from things that are harmful to his personality and character, by adhering to the laws of Allah, thus rejecting a negative approach to life and accepting positive virtues and is conscious of his duties as a true Muslim. See Glossary under Taqwa.

(3)          Khalaq / Takhleeq (creation): Khalaqun literally means ‘to measure; to assess the balance and ratio of things’.  Thus, khalaq means ‘to make something with the right balance and ratio of elements according to a specific measure’.  Allah is the best creator in this particular sense (khaliq  23:14; 37:125).

(4)          Shaitan:  When a person is overcome by his/her unbridled emotions  (animalistic instincts) it gives rise to aggression (a desire to dominate others), and he/she behaves irrationally.  To the Qur’an, ‘Shaitan’ is nothing but Man’s own emotions.  Also, emotions and intellect are neither good nor evil; it is how they are used which makes them so. Therefore, before doing anything a Muslim’s first supplication to Allah is to seek His protection from Shaitan.

(5)          Zakat/Zaka: Its basic meaning is ‘to grow, to thrive. Qur’an envisages an economic system of meeting people’s needs so that there is a universal growth of body, mind and soul.

(6)          Qiblah- Because of the unique significance of it being the first-ever house of Allah, Muslims  face the direction of the Ka’bah whenever they perform sala; this direction of the Ka’bah from any place on earth is known as the Qiblah.

(7)          In lands where the length of the day or night is unusually extended, reasonable hours of fasting may be calculated as is done for the performance of normal activities of daily life. This is why Allah has stressed the importance of human reason along with divine revelation.

(8)          Arafat: a vast open flat ground in the suburb of Makkah where pilgrims spend the 9th day of Dhul-Hijjah during Hajj. Muzdalfa is also a well-known place close to Arafat

(9)          This will be done when the Qur’anic order is established and takes upon itself the responsibility to provide means of sustenance to all.

(10)        The Qur’anic references to slaves relate to those men and women who were in bondage in Arab society at the beginning of Islam. The Qur’an abolished the source of slavery (47:4) and gave instructions for the gradual liberation of slaves who were already there, or their absorption into Muslim society.

(11)        If these two verses refer to formal prayer it would mean that during a state of danger normal formalities may be suspended and prayer may be offered afoot or mounted as practicable. Details about prayer are given in 4:101-103.

(12)        The Qur’an points out that in Arab society women were generally brought up in such a way that they could not represent their own case clearly and coherently even in domestic disputes (43:18). It is evident that these women would most likely become confused in a courtroom situation. In order to give psychological support to a woman who had to appear as a witness, the Qur’an prescribed the presence of another woman known to her. The function of the second woman is not to be a witness but to refresh the memory of the first one in case she forgets something or gets confused. It is wrong to assume that according to the Qur’an, the evidence of two women is equal to that of one man.

(13)        This may also mean that one should exert one’s capacities to the full to accomplish the assigned task.

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Exposition of the Holy Quran – 01 Bismillah and Al-Faatiha (G A Parwez)

With the Name of Allah, the Benevolent, the Kind God has handed down this great book in order to fulfil His self-assumed responsibility of being the Provider to mankind (6:16; 6:54). The Provision can only be made through wahi [the Celestial Guidance] (10:57-58; 17:82).

Since, in human societies, God’s responsibility is executed through humans themselves, it is imperative that all activities by mankind are aimed at achieving that (declared) divine objective (6:163).

Surah 1: Al-Faatiha

(The Opening)

(1-2) Reflecting upon the harmonious working of the universe, (1) it becomes manifest that everything in it is continuously receiving means of nurture, unearned, and is, thereby, enabled to actualize its potentialities. This amazing system of Rabubiyya (2) begets involuntary appreciation from all discerning persons who cry out, “O Our Sustainer! You have created nothing in this universe without purpose, or for ill use” (3:189-90). These persons with knowledge and conviction are truly engaged in the hamd (3) of Allah (9:112, 35:27-28 ).

(3) For the fulfilment of Allah’s plan, it is necessary to render ineffective oppressive forces which hinder the development of His creation. This would result in the ushering in of a system in which no one would be subservient to another. In this system, all matters will be decided in accordance with the divine laws (17:111, 43:84, 82:18-19), and it is this system which must eventually and inevitably supersede all man-made systems (9:33).

(4) Such a system will be introduced by those who will declare (and also prove in practice) “We do not accept or acknowledge any authority but that of Allah, nor do we seek alliance with any system which disregards the divine laws.”

(5-7) When these momineen (4) [the convinced Muslims] begin life’s journey, their aspirations and yearnings rise to their lips as the prayer:

“O Allah! make that path clearly apparent to us which would lead us, without fear and danger, to our destination. Blessed nations of the past following this path achieved prosperity, happiness and eminence amongst their contemporaries (through harnessing the forces of nature and utilizing them in accordance with the divine laws – 2:47, 31:20).

As long as these nations followed the path ordained by You, they were successful and happy. But when they changed their course they lost Your blessings (8:53), and suffered disgrace and ignominy (2:61, 7:152). All their efforts and actions were rendered in vain, and since the true path had become obscured from them, they became entangled in speculations. Sometimes, they blindly followed the antiquated ways of their ancestors (37:69-71), and, sometimes, they were misled by their baser desires (45:23). Dismayed by their goal-less journey, they deceived themselves by saying, “It was not Allah’s will to show us the right path (6:149).”

O Allah! We beseech You to enable us to follow the path prescribed by You so that our end is not like of those who lost their way and thus destroyed themselves. We are aware that no one can show the right path to a people who turn away from Your guidance (61:5). At the same time, we also know that the right path is discovered only by those who strive to find it (29:69). Therefore, grant us the strength for that search.”

(1) Aalameen: Any entity through which knowledge about something is gained is called aalamun (plural- Aalameen). Since knowledge about the creator of this universe can be obtained through the universe itself and human kind, these are included in the category of aalameen.

(2) Rabb: Rabubyyia is the process of nurturing something to its final stage, e.g., a child growing to his youth; a seed becoming a tree. The one carrying out this process is called Rabb.

(3) Hamd: is usually translated as Praise, but this is a very simplistic translation.  In fact, hamd is the expression of the deep, intense feeling of appreciation invoked spontaneously when one sees something exceptionally beautiful and unique. The intention of uttering Hamd (i.e. to say Al Hamdulillah) is to acknowledge the greatness of whoever created the given object of admiration. See Glossary for details.

(4)  Mo’min: This Arabic word, is popularly translated into English as ‘believer’, which, to the author, is not a true representation.  Even ‘faithful’ does not convey fully the meaning of mo’min.  This very important word springs from the root a-m-n having the basic concept of peace of mind and heart resulting from being totally convinced of something because of rational knowledge. Hence, the translation of mo’mineen as ‘the convinced’ (here-in-after called the convinced Muslims or Momineen throughout the holy Qur’an).


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Exposition of the Holy Quran – Under development

Under Development


This book could not have seen the light of day without the help of many friends who

took keen interest in this Exposition and discussed various issues related to it. I would like

to acknowledge the contribution of some of them while others wish to remain anonymous.

The Trust is very grateful to Maqbool Mahmood Farhat of Ilford, Essex, England the

moving spirit behind the project for his tireless work and continuous support in

accomplishing the rigorous task of completing the Exposition. He has been a constant

source of encouragement and guidance for us. Indeed, I owe a debt of gratitude for his

I will fail in my duty if I don’t mention Muhammad Riaz of Shepherd Bush, London

and his ardent wish and push for an end product of international standards. He generously

provided his unfailing support for the project with a free supply of high quality paper as

well as meeting the printing and binding costs.

It gives me immense pleasure to profusely thank two co-editors: Mrs Aqila Zaman, MA

English (Michigan University), Visiting Faculty at LUMS, Lahore, who painstakingly and

faithfully edited both the volumes. And, secondly, Khalid Mahmood Sayyed, MA, M Ed of

Peterborough, England, who despite his own very busy schedule, further edited the script

meticulously and skilfully, paying special attention to the Qur’anic terms and their

explanations in parentheses and footnotes. He offered valuable suggestions and advice on

The most important last, but by no means the least, task of providing the final touches

by proofreading the entire finished work with a fine toothcomb was done by Maqbool

Saim Khawaja of New York delved into libraries and provided the original quotes and

references used in the Exposition.

The Trust is deeply indebted to Prof Dr Mansoor Alam of Toledo University, USA and

Mr Ubedur Rahman Arain of Kuwait for their invaluable suggestions.

I take this opportunity to express my thanks to all the members of Tolu-e-Islam Trust

who always remain steadfast and determined in spreading the word of Qur’an. Their

unflinching support to the initiatives of the Trust is highly commendable.


About the Author

Ghulam Ahmad Parwez was born at Batala, Punjab, British India in 1903. He studied

the Qur`an and the classics of Islam under the tutelage of his grandfather; a celebrated

scholar and eminent sufi (Muslim mystic). He gained a comprehensive understanding of the

traditions, beliefs and practices of conventional Islam including the discipline of tusawwuf

(Muslim mysticism) with its arduous meditation and spiritual exercises. His study of the

history of Islam, beliefs and practices of pre-Islamic religions and vast knowledge of the

history of development of human thought inspired him to question the veracity of

prevailing beliefs of Muslims. He moved away from the embellishments, which have

accumulated around Islam over the centuries through the erroneous explanations of the

pristine beliefs expounded by the Qur’an. G.A. Parwez’s immense philosophical work is the

result of his deep study of Islam not as a religion but as deen a word, that has no parallel in

Western languages. It can best be described as a “Way of Life” and in the Islamic context, a

social system based on Qur’anic values and immutable principles. The exploration of the

meaning of deen forms the core of his more than forty-five voluminous books. His most

famous books in Urdu include:

1. Mafhoom ul Qur’an (Exposition of the Holy Qur’an) – three volumes

2. Lughaat ul Qur’an (Dictionary and concepts of the Qur’anic words)

3. Matalib ul Furqan (Exegesis – Tafseer – of the Holy Qur’an) – six

4. Tabweeb ul Qur’an (Classification of the Holy Qur’an) – three

5. Meraj-e-Insaniyyat (Biography of Messenger Muhammad (PBUH))

6. Nizam-e-Rabubiyyat (Qur’anic Economic Order) and numerous

It was his ardent desire and of those inspired by his interpretation of the Holy Qur’an,

to render his works into English so that the educated modern youth should be able to

understand and appreciate the true message of Islam. This urge increased particularly after

he published his reputed scholarly book in English, Islam: A Challenge to Religion.

His writings have inspired widespread awakening amongst the intelligentsia and the

general public alike in many parts of the world.

– four volumes.

volumes (the seventh volume was printed posthumously)


He was the founder of Tolu-e-Islam, a monthly magazine, which he started in 1938 at the

(1) instance of Dr Sir Muhammad Iqbal and under the guidance of Quaid-e-Azam

Muhammad Ali Jinnah, founder of Pakistan. This magazine continues to be published

In 1983 he undertook the project of rendering into English his celebrated work titled

Mafhoom ul Qur’an. The translation was done up to Surah Al-Kahf (18) slightly more than

half the text of the Qur’an when he became ill in October 1984 and expired on the

evening of 24 February 1985. After his death, the Tolu-e-Islam Trust took up the task of

translation of this work and its publication.

The reader would find a new approach in this rendering, which is different from all

other translations of the Holy Qur’an in English. As the title suggests, this is not a

translation of the Holy Qur’an, but its exposition.

It is an honest and serious human effort to convey the pristine concepts of the Holy

Qur’an. The original Arabic text of wahi (revelation), however, is eternal and its

interpretation during any span of time cannot be taken as the last word; that shall have to be

left to the last man on earth. As Allah says in the Holy Qur’an (41:53), the truth of His

guidance shall forever continue to manifest itself in the outer space and within the human

psyche until it is finally established. The reflection of any human error in this work,

therefore, should in no case be attributed to Allah’s message.

th (1) Dr Sir Muhammad Iqbal (1877-1938), the famous Islamic thinker, philosopher and poet of 20 century

envisaged a Muslim state, later designated as Pakistan, where Muslims could practise and establish Deen of

Islam politically freely and unhindered by inimical forces.


Second edition

The first volume comprising of the first eighteen surahs slightly more than half of the

text of the holy Qur’an was translated by the author, G.A. Parwez in 1983. It was in

manuscript format, ready for printing, when he fell ill in 1984 and died in 1985. It was

published in 1987 after a thorough review by Muhammad Omar Draz, Allah Ditta Sheikh,

Ubedur Rahman Arain and Aziz Mamuji, the latter both of Kuwait. Haji Habib-ur-Rehman

Khan, ex-Inspector General of Police, Punjab, Pakistan rendered the remaining part of the

original three-volume Urdu Mafhoom ul Quran into English. It was published in 2005. Mr.

Rehman remained faithful to the letter of the original script which added to the accuracy of

the translation. The first volume was printed again in 2008. It was decided to combine both

the volumes, re-edit the text and improve the English language in order to appeal to the

modern English-speaking readership in the West.

Marked improvement is evident in the present edition in that it provides an easy-to-read

text, and a sincere effort has been made to clarify the Qur’anic concepts for the average

reader. We hope this exposition will remove from the minds of the non-Muslim readers

many cobwebs of misunderstanding emanating from literal translations of the Holy

Additional material has been added to the Exposition such as Qur’anic terms and their

English meanings, footnotes, Arabic & Biblical names, bibliography, and index. In fact it is a

significantly improved version of the original translation.

The Trust is confident this revised edition will serve its purpose in a much better way.


List of Qur’anic Surah

Name Transliteration English Name

















Bani Isra’el



Taa- Haa








The Opening

The Cow/Heifer

The House of Imran

The Women

The Feast/ Repast

The Livestock

The Heights

The Bounty







Al-Hijr Valley

The Bee

The People of Israel

The Cave


Ta Ha

The Messengers

Hajj/ Annual Convention

The Believers

The Radiated Light

The Criteria of Right and Wrong

The Poets

The Tribe of Naml









Yaa- Seen





Ha- Meem




















The History

The Spider

The Romans

Luqman The Wise


The Parties


The Originator

O’ Human Being

The Columns/Ranks


The Multitude or Great Crowd

The Convinced Believer

Clearly Explained



The Smoke

Kneeling Down

The Sand Dunes



The Private Apartments


The Winds

Mount Sinai

The Star

The Moon

The Most Gracious

The Inevitable Event


The Debate

The Gathering


































The Examined Woman

The Ranks

The Congregation

The Hypocrites

The Loss and Gain




The Pen

The Truth

The Ways of Ascent


The Jinn

The Enwrapped

The Entrusted One

The Day of Reckoning


Those Sent Forth

The Great Event

Those Who Tear Out

He Frowned

The Overthrowing

The Cleaving Asunder

The Fraudsters

The Splitting Asunder

The Great Constellations

The Bright Star in the Night

The Most High

The Overpowering

The Dawn

The City

The Sun

























The Night

The Bright Morning

The Opening Up

The Fig

The Clot


The Clear Proof

The Earthquake

The Chargers

The Calamity

Greed for More

The Flight of Time

The Slanderer

The Elephants




The Disbelievers


Father of Flame

The Unity

The Rising Dawn




The irony of human history

Human history is a tragic epic of construction and destruction, civilisation and

barbarism. It appears that the epitome of human struggle in all historical epochs has been

the development of a grandiose civilisation. Each civilisation is based upon the best

available human and material resources. Humans think that each such civilisation is better

than its predecessors’, and is thus a step forward on the evolutionary ladder. They hope that

human evolution is inherent in the development of their civilisation, and that the latter will

provide peace and security to the wretched of the earth les miserable. Immersed in these

ideals, they work tirelessly for the development of this grand civilisation. Each passing day

brings new achievements and men are all the more anxious to see their dream realised. But

before this can happen, before the civilisation can reach its zenith, human beings start

demolishing their own creation with their own hands. The citadel of all dreams and ideals

readily converts into rubble, only to survive as a relic of a splendid past. Babylon, Egypt,

Greece, China, Roma and Persia are a few examples to remind us of the splendour of past

civilisations that perished to oblivion. The structures that remain and the archaeological

evidence we discover testify to the human failure and disappointments of an order of

which those very people who erected it demolished the edifice. These stories remind us of

Beware, lest you become the old woman who spins cotton laboriously only

to tear it to pieces with her own hands. 16:92

The modern civilisation

Even if you do not want to put yourself through the labour of peeping deep into

historical evidence and studying earlier human civilisations that perished, a critical look at

modern civilisation and culture would suffice. The modern era our era is the era of

western civilisation that has surpassed all its predecessors in splendour, grandiosity,

exquisiteness and glory. For this civilisation, the sky is the limit. Such is the power and

success of this civilisation that it has now tamed the major forces of nature and compressed

space-time through development of means of communication and transportation. Man

now rules the seas as it rules the mountains and deserts. He can access treasures buried deep

below the earth’s crust; heavenly thunders dance to the tune of his finger; he controls the

infinite energy concealed within the structure of something as small as an atom; he can

travel to the moon and beyond; and he can look into the distant corners of this galaxy. In

short, man has never been so powerful.

Yet, this civilisation is less than half a century old and man, who now has unprecedented

We began our era of scientific efficiency confident that materialistic

triumphs would solve life’s problems. We are finding we were wrong … Life

(1) is not as simple as that .

(1) Mason, J.W.T. 1926. Creative Freedom. p 183-184


Exposition of the Holy Qur’an 2

Nay, he goes to the extent of saying:

In its racial, economic, familial, moral, religious, intellectual organization,

the entire fabric of existing civilisation presents a consistent structure of

(2) blunder, of folly, of ignorance, of falsehood and iniquity .

This shows how badly affected and hollow the foundations of this grandiose civilisation

are. Each sensible man is wondering if western civilisation would be able to survive yet

another shock after the two world wars. Such a blow may prove fatal not only to civilisation

The question arises: Why is it happening? Clearly, neither the pyramids of the past nor

the skyscrapers of modern times were built by the mediocrity. Each was the finest product

of the (physical and intellectual) labour of the best people of their times. This was the sum

total of their wisdom, the epitome of their strategising and administrative capabilities. Yet,

since they met the fate, which they did, it would be hardly surprising if a study of human

history leads any sensible person to a conclusion other than the following:

By painful experience we have learnt that rational thinking does not suffice

to solve the problems of our social life. Penetrating research and keen

scientific work have often had tragic implications for mankind, producing,

on the one hand, inventions which liberated man from exhausting physical

labour, making his life easier and richer, but on the other hand, introducing

a grave restlessness into his life, making him a slave to his technological

environment, and and catastrophic of all creating the means for his own

mass destruction. This,indeed,is a tragedy of overwhelming poignancy .

This means that the human mind, notwithstanding its capacity to conquer the forces of

nature, cannot find satisfactory answers to human problems. Man’s successive failures in

this regard make us wonder if this is beyond his mandate. For, a solution of human

problems requires as a pre-condition, determination of the objective and goal of human

life. Before man can venture into finding solutions, he needs to find out what causes

conflict between people and nations; how these conflicts can be prevented; what is

beneficial and what is dangerous for mankind; what some of the common values of

mankind are and how they are interconnected; why it is necessary to uphold these values;

and what basic human rights are and how these rights can be safeguarded. These are the

basic issues which cannot be settled by the human mind and scientific know-how created by

For science can only ascertain what is, but not what should be, and outside

of its domain value judgments of all kinds remain necessary …

Representatives of science have often made an attempt to arrive at

fundamental judgments with respect of values and ends on the basis of

scientific methods, and in this way have set themselves in opposition to

religion. These conflicts have all sprung from fatal errors … For the

scientist, there is only “being”, but not wishing, no valuing, no good, no

(2) Briffault, R. 1919. The making of Humanity. p 360

(3) Einstein, Albert. 1950. Out of My Later Years. p 152

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